Brunei Population: 436,620


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The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the world.

Close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave within Malaysia
Location: Southeastern Asia, along the northern coast of the island of Borneo, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia
Geographic coordinates: 4 30 N, 114 40 E
Area: total: 5,765 sq km
land: 5,265 sq km
water: 500 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Delaware
Land Boundaries: total: 266 km border countries (1): Malaysia 266 km
Coastline: 161 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber
Land use: agricultural land: 2.5% arable land 0.8%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 0.6% forest: 71.8%
other: 25.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 10 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare
Current Environment Issues: seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Bruneian(s)
adjective: Bruneian
Ethnic groups: Malay 65.7%, Chinese 10.3%, other indigenous 3.4%, other 20.6% (2011 est.)
Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese dialects
Religions: Muslim (official) 78.8%, Christian 8.7%, Buddhist 7.8%, other (includes indigenous beliefs) 4.7% (2011 est.)
Population: 436,620 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 23.46% (male 52,785/female 49,638)
15-24 years: 17.11% (male 37,103/female 37,603)
25-54 years: 46.8% (male 98,152/female 106,206)
55-64 years: 8.09% (male 18,043/female 17,278)
65 years and over: 4.54% (male 9,635/female 10,177) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 38%
youth dependency ratio: 31.9%
elderly dependency ratio: 6.1%
potential support ratio: 16.4% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 29.9 years
male: 29.5 years
female: 30.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.6% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 17.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 3.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 2.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 77.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -1.79% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN (capital) 241,000 note: the boundaries of the capital city were expanded in 2007, greatly increasing the city area; the population of the capital increased tenfold (2011)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 23 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births male: 11.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.2 years male: 74.8 years
female: 79.6 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.79 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Health expenditures: 2.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 1.44 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density: 2.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 18.6% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 9.6% (2009)
Education expenditures: 3.7% of GDP (2016)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 97.5%
female: 94.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2014)
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Country name: conventional long form: Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei
local long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
local short form: Brunei
etymology: derivation of the name is unclear; according to legend, MUHAMMAD SHAH, who would become the first sultan of Brunei, upon discovering what would become Brunei exclaimed "Baru nah," which roughly translates as "there" or "that's it"
Government type: absolute monarchy or sultanate (locally known as Malay Islamic Monarchy)
Capital: name: Bandar Seri Begawan
geographic coordinates: 4 53 N, 114 56 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei-Muara, Temburong, Tutong
Independence: 1 January 1984 (from the UK)
National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection
Constitution: drafted 1954 to 1959, signed 29 September 1959; amended 1984, 2004, 2011; note - some constitutional provisions suspended since 1962 under a State of Emergency, others suspended since independence in 1984 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system based on English common law and Islamic law; note - in May 2014, the first phase of a sharia-based penal codes was instituted, which applies to Muslims and non-Muslims and exists in parallel to the existing common law-based code
Suffrage: 18 years of age for village elections; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; note - 4 additional advisory councils appointed by the monarch are the Religious Council, Privy Council for constitutional issues, Council of Succession, and Legislative Council elections/appointments: none; the monarchy is hereditary
Legislative branch: description: Legislative Council or Majlis Mesyuarat Negara Brunei (36 seats; members appointed by the sultan including 3 ex-officio members - the speaker and first and second secretaries; meets annually for approximately two weeks)

elections: last held in March 1962 (date of next election NA)
Judicial branch: highest resident court(s): Supreme Court (consists of Court of Appeal and High Court, each with a chief justice and 2 judges); Sharia Court of Appeal (consists of judges appointed by the monarch); note - Brunei has a dual judicial system of secular and sharia (religious) courts; the Judicial Committee of Privy Council in London serves as the final appellate court for civil cases only judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch to serve until age 65, and older if approved by the monarch; Sharia Court of Appeal judges appointed by the monarch; judges appointed for life

subordinate courts: Intermediate Court; Magistrate's Courts; Juvenile Court; small claims courts; lower sharia courts
Political parties and leaders: National Development Party or NDP [YASSIN Affendi] note: Brunei National Solidarity Party or PPKB [Abdul LATIF bin Chuchu] and People's Awareness Party or PAKAR [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad] were deregistered in 2007; parties are small and have limited activity
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): royal parasol; national colors: yellow, white, black
National anthem: name: "Allah Peliharakan Sultan" (God Bless His Majesty)
lyrics/music: Pengiran Haji Mohamed YUSUF bin Pengiran Abdul Rahim/Awang Haji BESAR bin Sagap

note: adopted 1951
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Serbini ALI (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560 consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Craig B. ALLEN (since 9 March 2015)
embassy: Simpang 336-52-16-9, Jalan Datu, Bandar Seri Begawan, BC4115
mailing address: Unit 4280, Box 40, FPO AP 96507; P.O. Box 2991, Bandar Seri Begawan BS8675, Negara Brunei Darussalam
telephone: [673] 238-4616
FAX: [673] 238-4604
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Brunei is an energy-rich sultanate on the northern coast of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Brunei boasts a well-educated, largely English-speaking population; excellent infrastructure; and a stable government intent on attracting foreign investment. Crude oil and natural gas production account for approximately 65% of GDP and 95% of exports, with Japan as the primary export market. Per capita GDP is among the highest in the world, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic hydrocarbon production. Bruneian citizens do not pay personal income taxes, and the government provides free medical services and free education through the university level. The Bruneian Government wants to diversify its economy away from hydrocarbon exports to other industries such as information and communications technology and halal manufacturing. Brunei’s trade in 2016 is set to increase following its regional economic integration in the ASEAN Economic Community, and the expected ratification of the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $33.73 billion (2016 est.) $33.61 billion (2015 est.) $33.79 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $10.46 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0.4% (2016 est.) -0.6% (2015 est.) -2.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $79,700 (2016 est.) $80,600 (2015 est.) $82,000 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 44.2% of GDP (2015 est.) 55.1% of GDP (2014 est.) 60.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 21.7%
government consumption: 23.6%
investment in fixed capital: 37.6%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 50.8%
imports of goods and services: -33.7% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 21.7%
government consumption: 23.6%
investment in fixed capital: 37.6%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 50.8%
imports of goods and services: -33.7% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, vegetables, fruits; chickens, water buffalo, cattle, goats, eggs
Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction, agriculture, transportation
Industrial production growth rate: 1% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 203,600 (2014 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 62.8%
services: 33% (2008 est.)
Unemployment rate: 6.9% (2014 est.) 9.3% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $2.958 billion
expenditures: $4.618 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 28.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.2% (2016 est.) -0.4% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: $452 million (2016 est.) $1.556 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $5.315 billion (2016 est.) $7.235 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: mineral fuels, organic chemicals
Exports - partners: Japan 35.9%, South Korea 14.8%, Thailand 10.8%, India 9.8%, NZ 5.6%, Australia 5% (2015)
Imports: $3.648 billion (2016 est.) $3.359 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and mechanical appliance parts, mineral fuels, motor vehicles, electric machinery
Imports - partners: Singapore 27.9%, China 25.3%, Malaysia 12.4%, UK 10.6%, South Korea 4.9% (2015)
Debt - external: $0 (2014) $0 (2013) note: public external debt only; private external debt unavailable
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (BND) per US dollar - 1.386 (2016 est.) 1.3749 (2015 est.) 1.3749 (2014 est.) 1.267 (2013 est.) 1.25 (2012 est.)
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Electricity - production: 4.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 3.766 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 777,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Crude oil - production: 115,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 117,600 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 10,910 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 18,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 189.1 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 6,099 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 10.7 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 2.4 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 8.3 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 390.8 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 8.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total: 463,000 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 108 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: service throughout the country is good; international service is good to Southeast Asia, Middle East, Western Europe, and the US

domestic: every service available

international: country code - 673; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable network provides new links to Asia and the US; satellite ea (2015)
Broadcast media: state-controlled Radio Television Brunei (RTB) operates 5 channels; 3 Malaysian TV stations are available; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite and cable systems; RTB operates 5 radio networks and broadcasts on multiple frequencies; British F (2009)
Internet country code: .bn
Internet users: total: 306,000 percent of population: 71.2% (July 2015 est.)
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Airports: 1 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports: 3 (2013)
Pipelines: condensate 33 km; condensate/gas 86 km; gas 628 km; oil 492 km (2013)
Roadways: total 3,029 km
paved: 2,425 km
unpaved: 604 km (2010)
Waterways: 209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m; the Belait, Brunei, and Tutong rivers are major transport links) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 9

by type: chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 8

foreign-owned: 2 (UK 2) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Muara oil terminal(s): Lumut, Seria LNG terminal (export): Lumut
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Military branches: Royal Brunei Armed Forces: Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Brunei) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 17 years of age for voluntary military service; non-Malays are ineligible to serve; recruits from the army, navy, and air force all undergo 43-week initial training (2013)
Military expenditures: 2.43% of GDP (2012) 2.54% of GDP (2011) 2.43% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; nonetheless, Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Louisa Reef
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 20,524 (2015); note - thousands of stateless persons, often ethnic Chinese, are permanent residents and their families have lived in Brunei for generations; obtaining citizenship is difficult and requires individuals to pass rigorous tests on Malay culture, customs, and language; stateless residents receive an International Certificate of Identity, which enables them to travel overseas; the government is considering changing the law prohibiting non-Bruneians, including stateless permanent residents, from owning land
Illicit drugs: drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty
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