Spain Population: 48,563,476

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 History
Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World War I and II but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975, and rapid economic modernization (Spain joined the EU in 1986) gave Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy and made it a global champion of freedom and human rights. More recently the government has focused on measures to reverse a severe economic recession that began in mid-2008. Austerity measures implemented to reduce a large budget deficit and reassure foreign investors have led to one of the highest unemployment rates in Europe. Spain assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2015-16 term.

 Geography
Strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; Spain controls a number of territories in northern Morocco including the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas
Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Bay of Biscay, and Pyrenees Mountains; southwest of France
Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 4 00 W
Area: total: 505,370 sq km
land: 498,980 sq km
water: 6,390 sq km

note: there are two autonomous cities - Ceuta and Melilla - and 17 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera

Size comparison: almost five times the size of Kentucky; slightly more than twice the size of Oregon
Land Boundaries: total: 1,952.7 km border countries (5): Andorra 63 km, France 646 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,224 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 8 km, Morocco (Melilla) 10.5 km note: an additional 75-meter border segment exists between Morocco and the Spanish exclave of Penon de Velez de la Gomera
Coastline: 4,964 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)
Climate: temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast
Terrain: large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees Mountains in north
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 54.1% arable land 24.9%; permanent crops 9.1%; permanent pasture 20.1% forest: 36.8%
other: 9.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 38,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts, occasional flooding volcanism: volcanic activity in the Canary Islands, located off Africa's northwest coast; Teide (elev. 3,715 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; La Palma (elev. 2,426 m), which last erupted in 1971, is the most active of the Canary Islands volcanoes; Lanzarote is the only other historically active volcano
Current Environment Issues: pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
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 People
Nationality: noun: Spaniard(s)
adjective: Spanish
Ethnic groups: composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types
Languages: Castilian Spanish (official nationwide) 74%, Catalan (official in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and the Valencian Community (where it is known as Valencian)) 17%, Galician (official in Galicia) 7%, Basque (official in the Basque Country and in the Basque-speaking area of Navarre) 2%, Aranese (official in the northwest corner of Catalonia (Vall d'Aran) along with Catalan; note: Aragonese, Aranese Asturian, Basque, Calo, Catalan, Galician, and Valencian are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
Religions: Roman Catholic 94%, other 6%
Population: 48,563,476 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.43% (male 3,854,687/female 3,638,288)
15-24 years: 9.56% (male 2,400,188/female 2,243,311)
25-54 years: 45.24% (male 11,200,786/female 10,771,652)
55-64 years: 11.91% (male 2,820,933/female 2,963,050)
65 years and over: 17.85% (male 3,700,832/female 4,969,749) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 50.8%
youth dependency ratio: 22.4%
elderly dependency ratio: 28.3%
potential support ratio: 3.5% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 42.3 years
male: 41.2 years
female: 43.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.84% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 9.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 9.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 79.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.52% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: MADRID (capital) 6.199 million; Barcelona 5.258 million; Valencia 810,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 29.8 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 5 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 81.7 years male: 78.7 years
female: 84.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.49 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 65.7% (2006)
Health expenditures: 9% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 4.95 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density: 3.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 99.8% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99.9% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0.2% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.39% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 148,900 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,200 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 26.5% (2014)
Education expenditures: 4.3% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.1%
male: 98.7%
female: 97.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 18 years male: 17 years
female: 18 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 53.2% male: 53.4%
female: 52.9% (2014 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain
conventional short form: Spain
local long form: Reino de Espana
local short form: Espana
etymology: derivation of the name "Espana" is uncertain, but may come from the Phoenician term "span," related to the word "spy," meaning "to forge metals," so, "i-spn-ya" would mean "place where metals are forged"; the ancient Phoenicians long exploited the Iberian Peninsula for its mineral wealth
Government type: parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Madrid
geographic coordinates: 40 24 N, 3 41 W
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: Spain has two time zones including the Canary Islands
Administrative divisions: 17 semi-autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma) and 2 autonomous cities* (ciudades autonomas, singular - ciudad autonoma); Andalucia; Aragon; Asturias; Canarias (Canary Islands); Cantabria; Castilla-La Mancha; Castilla-Leon; Cataluna (Castilian), Catalunya (Catalan), Catalonha (Aranese) [Catalonia]; Ceuta*; Comunidad Valenciana (Castilian), Comunitat Valenciana (Valencian) [Valencian Community]; Extremadura; Galicia; Illes Baleares (Balearic Islands); La Rioja; Madrid; Melilla*; Murcia; Navarra (Castilian), Nafarroa (Basque) [Navarre]; Pais Vasco (Castilian), Euskadi (Basque) [Basque Country]

note: the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla plus three small islands of Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, administered directly by the Spanish central government, are all along the coast of Morocco and are collectively referred to as Places of Sovereignty (Plazas de Soberania)
Independence: 1492; the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Muslim occupation that began in the early 8th century A.D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain
National holiday: National Day, 12 October (1492); year when Columbus first set foot in the Americas
Constitution: history: previous 1812; latest approved by the General Courts 31 October 1978, passed by referendum 6 December 1978, signed by the king 27 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978 amendments: proposed by the government, by the General Courts (the Congress or the Senate), or by the self-governing communities submitted through the government; passage requires three-fifths majority vote by both houses and passage by referendum if required by one-tenth of the members of either house within 15 days of passage; proposals disapproved by both houses are submitted to a joint committee, which submits an agreed upon text for another vote; passage requires two-thirds vote in Congress and simple majority vote in the Senate; amended 1992, 2007, 2011 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system with regional variations
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: King FELIPE VI (since 19 June 2014); Heir Apparent Princess LEONOR, Princess of Asturias, daughter of the monarch, born 31 October 2005

head of government: President of the Government or Acting Prime Minister Mariano RAJOY (since 20 December 2011); Vice President (and Minister of the President's Office) Soraya SAENZ DE SANTAMARIA (since 22 December 2011)

cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the monarch usually proposes the leader of the party or coalition with the largest majority of seats as president, who is then indirectly elected by the Congress of Deputies; election last held on 20 December 2015; vice president and Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - because no party received a majority of the votes in both houses, and because the leaders of the parties with the most votes were unable to form a coalition to form a majority, new elections were held on 26 June 2016

election results: percent of National Assembly vote - NA

note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding
Legislative branch: description: bicameral General Courts or Las Cortes Generales consists of the Senate or Senado (266 seats as of 2013; 208 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 58 appointed by the regional legislatures; members serve 4-year terms) and the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; 348 members directly elected in 50 multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 directly elected from the North African Ceuta and Melilla enclaves by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms or until the government is dissolved)

elections: Senate - last held on 26 June 2016 (next to be held 26 June 2016); Congress of Deputies - last held on 20 December 2015 (next to be held no later than 26 June 2020); note - the four main parties were unable to form a government so a second election was held six months later

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PP 151, PSOE 63, Podemos 23, ERC 12, EAJ/PNV 6, CDC 4, other 7; Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PP 33.0%, PSOE 22.7%, Podemos 21.1%, C's 13.0%, ERC-CatSi 2.6%, CDC 2.0%, EAJ/PNV 1.2%, other 4.4%; seats by party - PP 137, PSOE 85, Podemos 71, C's 32, ERC-CatSi 9, CDC 8, EAJ/PNV 5, other 3
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo (consists of the court president and organized into the Civil Room with a president and 9 judges, the Penal Room with a president and 14 judges, the Administrative Room with a president and 32 judges, the Social Room with a president and 12 judges, and the Military Room with a president and 7 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional de Espana (consists of 12 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch from candidates proposed by the General Council of the Judiciary Power, a 20-member governing board chaired by the monarch that includes presidential appointees, and lawyers and jurists confirmed by the National Assembly; judges can serve until age 70; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Assembly, executive branch, and the General Council of the Judiciary, and appointed by the monarch for 9-year terms

subordinate courts: National High Court; High Courts of Justice (in each of the autonomous communities); provincial courts; courts of first instance
Political parties and leaders: Amaiur [Xabier ERREKONDO] (a separatist political coalition that advocates Basque independence from Spain) Asturias Forum or FAC [Cristina COTO] Basque Country Unite (Euskal Herria Bildu) or EH Bildu [Pello URIZAR] (coalition of 4 Basque pro-independence parties) Basque Nationalist Party or PNV or EAJ [Andoni ORTUZAR] Canarian Coalition or CC [Claudina MORALES Rodriguez] (coalition of five parties) Canarian Nationalist Party or PNC [Juan Manuel GARCIA Ramos] Catalan Agreement of Progress (Entesa Catalonia de Progress) or ECP [Carles BONET i Reves] (Senate coalition of Catalan parties - PSC, ERC, ICV, EUA) Change or Cambio-Aldaketa Ciudadamos Party or C's [Albert RIVERA] Democracy and Freedom or DiL [Francesc HOMS Molist] (2015 merger of Cemocratic Convergence of Catalonia or CDC, Democrats of Catalonia, Reagrupament) Democratic Union of Catalonia or UDC [Josep Maria PELEGRIA] Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Ana PONTON Mondelo] Gomera Socialist Group or ASG Initiative for Catalonia Greens or ICV [Joan HERRERA i Torres and Dolors CAMATS] Podemos [Pablo IGLESIAS Turrion] Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY Brey] Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Oriol JUNQUERAS i Vies] Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [interim leader Javier FERNANDEZ] Union of People of Navarra or UPN [Javier ESPARZA] Union, Progress and Democracy or UPyD [Gorka MAEIRO] United Left or IU [Alberto GARZON] (a coalition of parties including the Communist Party of Spain or PCE and other small parties; ran as Popular Unity or UP in 2015 election) Yes to the Future or Geroa Bai [Koldo MARTINEZ] (a coalition of four Navarran parties)
Political pressure groups and leaders: Association for Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to supporting victims of the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorist organization) Catholic Church Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT (includes the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO) Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO. Spanish Confederation of Employers' Organizations or CEOE other: business and landowning interests; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); university students
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): Pillars of Hercules; national colors: red, yellow
National anthem: name: "Himno Nacional Espanol" (National Anthem of Spain)
lyrics/music: no lyrics/unknown

note: officially in use between 1770 and 1931, restored in 1939; the Spanish anthem is the first anthem to be officially adopted, but it has no lyrics; in the years prior to 1931 it became known as "Marcha Real" (The Royal March); it first appeared in a 1761 military bugle call book and was replaced by "Himno de Riego" in the years between 1931 and 1939; the long version of the anthem is used for the king, while the short version is used for the prince, prime minister, and occasions such as sporting events
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ramon GIL-CASARES Satrustegui (since 5 June 2012)
chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340
FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico) consulate(s): Kansas City (MO)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James COSTOS (since 24 September 2013); note - also accredited to Andorra
embassy: Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid
mailing address: PSC 61, APO AE 09642
telephone: [34] (91) 587-2200
FAX: [34] (91) 587-2303
consulate(s) general: Barcelona
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 Economy
After experiencing a prolonged recession in the wake of the global financial crisis that began in 2008, in 2014 Spain marked the first full year of positive economic growth in seven years, largely due to increased private consumption. At the onset of the financial crisis, Spain's GDP contracted by 3.7% in 2009, ending a 16-year growth trend, and continued contracting through most of 2013. In 2013, the government successfully shored up struggling banks - exposed to the collapse of Spain's depressed real estate and construction sectors - and in January 2014 completed an EU-funded restructuring and recapitalization program. Until 2014, credit contraction in the private sector, fiscal austerity, and high unemployment weighed on domestic consumption and investment. The unemployment rate rose from a low of about 8% in 2007 to more than 26% in 2013, but labor reforms prompted a modest reduction to 22% in 2015. High unemployment strained Spain's public finances, as spending on social benefits increased while tax revenues fell. Spain’s budget deficit peaked at 11.4% of GDP in 2010, but Spain gradually reduced the deficit to just under 7% of GDP in 2013-14, and 4.7% of GDP in 2015. Public debt has increased substantially – from 60.1% of GDP in 2010 to nearly 101% in 2015. Exports were resilient throughout the economic downturn and helped to bring Spain's current account into surplus in 2013 for the first time since 1986, where it remained in 2014-15. Rising labor productivity and an internal devaluation resulting from moderating labor costs and lower inflation have helped to improve foreign investor interest in the economy and positive FDI flows have been restored. The government's efforts to implement labor, pension, healthcare, tax, and education reforms - aimed at supporting investor sentiment - have become overshadowed by political activity in 2015 in anticipation of the national parliamentary elections in December. The European Commission criticized Spain’s 2016 budget for its easing of austerity measures and its alleged overly optimistic growth and deficit projections. Spain’s borrowing costs are dramatically lower since their peak in mid-2012, and despite the recent uptick in economic activity, inflation has dropped sharply, from 1.5% in 2013 to a negative 0.6% in 2015.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.69 trillion (2016 est.) $1.64 trillion (2015 est.) $1.589 trillion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $1.252 trillion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.1% (2016 est.) 3.2% (2015 est.) 1.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $36,500 (2016 est.) $35,300 (2015 est.) $34,200 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 22.9% of GDP (2016 est.) 22.1% of GDP (2015 est.) 20.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 57.2%
government consumption: 19%
investment in fixed capital: 20.8%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 32.2%
imports of goods and services: -29.3% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 57.2%
government consumption: 19%
investment in fixed capital: 20.8%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 32.2%
imports of goods and services: -29.3% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish
Industries: textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment
Industrial production growth rate: 2% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 22.89 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 24%
services: 71.7% (2009 est.)
Unemployment rate: 19.7% (2016 est.) 22.1% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 21.1% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 24% (2011)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 35.9 (2012) 32 (2005)
Budget: revenues: $461.3 billion
expenditures: $512.9 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 36.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 99.6% of GDP (2016 est.) 99.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.3% (2016 est.) -0.6% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: $24.29 billion (2016 est.) $16.7 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $266.3 billion (2016 est.) $277.9 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods
Exports - partners: France 15.7%, Germany 11%, Italy 7.4%, UK 7.4%, Portugal 7.1%, US 4.5% (2015)
Imports: $287.9 billion (2016 est.) $302.6 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semi-finished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring and medical control instruments
Imports - partners: Germany 14.4%, France 11.7%, China 7.1%, Italy 6.5%, Netherlands 5%, UK 4.9% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $53.97 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $50.35 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Debt - external: $2.094 trillion (31 March 2016 est.) $1.963 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $781.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $758.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $770.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $720.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $787.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $992.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $1.117 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.9214 (2016 est.) 0.885 (2015 est.) 0.7525 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.) 0.7752 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 264 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 234 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 16 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 102.3 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 43% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 7.7% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 19.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 30% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Crude oil - production: 4,652 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 54,230 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 1.349 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 150 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 1.352 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1.241 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 416,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 302,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 24 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 27.23 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 8.219 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 36.38 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 2.548 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 276 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 50.926 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: well-developed, modern facilities

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 145 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 34; submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries (2015)
Broadcast media: a mixture of both publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; overall, hundreds of TV channels are available including national, regional, local, public, and international channels; satellite and cable TV systems available; multiple natio (2008)
Internet country code: .es
Internet users: total: 37.886 million percent of population: 78.7% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 150 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 99
over 3,047 m: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 24
under 914 m: 24 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 51

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 36 (2013)
Heliports: 10 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 10,481 km; oil 616 km; refined products 3,461 km (2013)
Railways: total: 16,101.5 km broad gauge: 11,873 km 1.668-m gauge (6,488 km electrified) standard gauge: 2,312 km 1.435-m gauge (2,312 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,884.9 km 1.000-m gauge (807 km electrified); 28 km 0.914-m gauge (28 km electrified); 3.6 km 0.600-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 683,175 km
paved: 683,175 km (includes 16,205 km of expressways) (2011)
Waterways: 1,000 km (2012)
Merchant marine: total 132

by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 19, chemical tanker 8, container 5, liquefied gas 12, passenger/cargo 43, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 9, vehicle carrier 7

foreign-owned: 27 (Canada 4, Germany 4, Italy 1, Mexico 1, Norway 10, Russia 6, Switzerland 1)

registered in other countries: 103 (Angola 1, Argentina 3, Bahamas 6, Brazil 12, Cabo Verde 1, Cyprus 6, Ireland 1, Malta 8, Morocco 9, Panama 30, Peru 1, Portugal 18, Uruguay 5, Venezuela 1, unknown 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Algeciras, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Tarragona, Valencia (all in Spain); Las Palmas, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (in the Canary Islands) container port(s) (TEUs): Algeciras (3,608,301), Barcelona (2,033,747), Valencia (4,327,371); Las Palmas (1,287,389) LNG terminal(s) (import): Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Mugardos, Sagunto
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 Military
Military branches: Spanish Armed Forces: Army (Ejercito de Tierra), Spanish Navy (Armada Espanola, AE; includes Marine Corps), Spanish Air Force (Ejercito del Aire Espanola, EdA) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-26 years of age for voluntary military service by a Spanish citizen or legal immigrant, 2-3 year obligation; women allowed to serve in all SAF branches, including combat units; no conscription, but Spanish Government retains right to mobilize citizens 19-25 years of age in a national emergency; mandatory retirement of non-NCO enlisted personnel at age 45 or 58, depending on service length (2013)
Military expenditures: 0.86% of GDP (2012) 0.95% of GDP (2011) 0.86% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); Morocco serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 440 (2015) note: 14,661 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (2015 - September 2016)
Illicit drugs: despite rigorous law enforcement efforts, North African, Latin American, Galician, and other European traffickers take advantage of Spain's long coastline to land large shipments of cocaine and hashish for distribution to the European market; consumer for Latin American cocaine and North African hashish; destination and minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering site for Colombian narcotics trafficking organizations and organized crime
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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