Spain Population: 49,331,076

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 History
Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World War I and II, but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975, and rapid economic modernization (Spain joined the EU in 1986) gave Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy, and made it a global champion of freedom and human rights. More recently, Spain has emerged from a severe economic recession that began in mid-2008, posting four straight years of GDP growth above the EU average. Unemployment has fallen, but remains high, especially among youth. Spain is the Eurozone's fourth largest economy. The country has faced increased domestic turmoil in recent years due to the independence movement in its restive Catalonia region.

 Geography
    Strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; Spain controls a number of territories in northern Morocco including the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas
Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Bay of Biscay, and Pyrenees Mountains; southwest of France
Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 4 00 W
Area: total: 505,370 sq km
land: 498,980 sq km
water: 6,390 sq km

note: there are two autonomous cities - Ceuta and Melilla - and 17 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera

Size comparison: almost five times the size of Kentucky; slightly more than twice the size of Oregon
Land Boundaries: total: 1,952.7 km border countries (6): Andorra 63 km, France 646 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1224 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 8 km, Morocco (Melilla) 10.5 km note: an additional 75-meter border segment exists between Morocco and the Spanish exclave of Penon de Velez de la Gomera
Coastline: 4,964 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)
contiguous zone: 24 nm
Climate: temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast
Terrain: large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees Mountains in north
Natural resources: coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 54.1% (2011 est.) arable land: 24.9% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 9.1% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 20.1% (2011 est.) forest: 36.8% (2011 est.)
other: 9.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 38,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts, occasional flooding volcanism: volcanic activity in the Canary Islands, located off Africa's northwest coast; Teide (3,715 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; La Palma (2,426 m), which last erupted in 1971, is the most active of the Canary Islands volcanoes; Lanzarote is the only other historically active volcano
Current Environment Issues: pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
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 People
Nationality: noun: Spaniard(s)
adjective: Spanish
Ethnic groups: Spanish 86.4%, Morocco 1.8%, Romania 1.3%, other 10.5% (2018 est.) note: data represent population by country of birth
Languages: Castilian Spanish (official nationwide) 74%, Catalan (official in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and the Valencian Community (where it is known as Valencian)) 17%, Galician (official in Galicia) 7%, Basque (official in the Basque Country and in the Basque-speaking area of Navarre) 2%, Aranese (official in the northwest corner of Catalonia (Vall d'Aran) along with Catalan, <5,000 speakers) note: Aragonese, Aranese Asturian, Basque, Calo, Catalan, Galician, and Valencian are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
Religions: Roman Catholic 68.9%, atheist 11.3%, agnostic 7.6%, other 2.8%, non-believer 8.2%, unspecified 1.1% (2019 est.)
Population: 49,331,076 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.29% (male 3,879,229 /female 3,664,016)
15-24 years: 9.65% (male 2,458,486 /female 2,299,523)
25-54 years: 44.54% (male 11,208,598 /female 10,762,651)
55-64 years: 12.38% (male 2,980,206 /female 3,125,949)
65 years and over: 18.15% (male 3,833,601 /female 5,118,817) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 51 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 22.5 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 28.5 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 3.5 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 43.1 years
male: 41.9 years
female: 44.3 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.73% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 9.2 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 7.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 80.3% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.33% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.) note: data include Canary Islands, Ceuta, and Melilla
Major urban areas - population: 6.497 million MADRID (capital)
5.494 million Barcelona
830,000 Valencia (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 30.7 years (2015 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 5 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 81.8 years male: 78.8 years
female: 85 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 70.9% (2016)
Physicians density: 4.07 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density: 3 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 99.8% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
total: 99.9% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 0.2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.4% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 150,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: n/a
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 23.8% (2016)
Education expenditures: 4.3% of GDP (2015)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2016 est.)
total population: 98.3%
male: 98.8%
female: 97.7% (2016 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 18 years male: 18 years female: 18 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 38.6% male: 39.5% female: 37.4% (2017 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain
conventional short form: Spain
local long form: Reino de Espana
local short form: Espana
etymology: derivation of the name "Espana" is uncertain, but may come from the Phoenician term "span," related to the word "spy," meaning "to forge metals," so, "i-spn-ya" would mean "place where metals are forged"; the ancient Phoenicians long exploited the Iberian Peninsula for its mineral wealth
Government type: parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Madrid
geographic coordinates: 40 24 N, 3 41 W
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: Spain has two time zones, including the Canary Islands (UTC 0)
Administrative divisions: 17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma) and 2 autonomous cities* (ciudades autonomas, singular - ciudad autonoma); Andalucia; Aragon; Asturias; Canarias (Canary Islands); Cantabria; Castilla-La Mancha; Castilla-Leon; Cataluna (Castilian), Catalunya (Catalan), Catalonha (Aranese) [Catalonia]; Ceuta*; Comunidad Valenciana (Castilian), Comunitat Valenciana (Valencian) [Valencian Community]; Extremadura; Galicia; Illes Baleares (Balearic Islands); La Rioja; Madrid; Melilla*; Murcia; Navarra (Castilian), Nafarroa (Basque) [Navarre]; Pais Vasco (Castilian), Euskadi (Basque) [Basque Country]

note: the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla plus three small islands of Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, administered directly by the Spanish central government, are all along the coast of Morocco and are collectively referred to as Places of Sovereignty (Plazas de Soberania)
Independence: 1492; the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Muslim occupation that began in the early 8th century A.D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain
National holiday: National Day (Hispanic Day), 12 October (1492); note - commemorates the arrival of COLUMBUS in the Americas
Constitution: history: previous 1812; latest approved by the General Courts 31 October 1978, passed by referendum 6 December 1978, signed by the king 27 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978 amendments: proposed by the government, by the General Courts (the Congress or the Senate), or by the self-governing communities submitted through the government; passage requires three-fifths majority vote by both houses and passage by referendum if requested by one-tenth of members of either house; proposals disapproved by both houses are submitted to a joint committee, which submits an agreed upon text for another vote; passage requires two-thirds vote in Congress and simple majority vote in the Senate; amended 1992, 2007, 2011 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system with regional variations
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: King FELIPE VI (since 19 June 2014); Heir Apparent Princess LEONOR, Princess of Asturias (daughter of the monarch, born 31 October 2005)

head of government: President of the Government (Prime Minister-equivalent) Pedro SANCHEZ Perez-Castejon (since 2 June 2018); Vice President (and Minister of the President's Office) Maria del Carmen CALVO Poyato (since 7 June 2018)

cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the monarch usually proposes as president the leader of the party or coalition with the largest majority of seats, who is then indirectly elected by the Congress of Deputies; election last held on 28 April 2019 (next to be held on April 2022); vice president and Council of Ministers appointed by the president

election results: percent of National Assembly vote - NA

note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding
Legislative branch: description: bicameral General Courts or Las Cortes Generales consists of: Senate or Senado (266 seats; 208 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 58 members indirectly elected by the legislatures of the autonomouse communities; members serve 4-year terms) Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; 348 members directly elected in 50 multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 directly elected from the North African Ceuta and Melilla enclaves by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms or until the government is dissolved)

elections: Senate - last held on 28 April 2019 (next to be held no later than April 2023) Congress of Deputies - last held on 28 April 2019 (next to be held no later than April 2023)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PSOE 121, PP 56, EKC 11, EAJ/PNV 9, C's 4, other 7; composition - men 169, women 97 Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSOE 28.7%, PP 16.7%, C's 15.9%, Unidos Podemos 14.3%, Vox 10.3%, ERC 3.9%, other 26.1%; seats by party - PSOE 123, PP 66, C's 57, Unidos Podemos 42, Vox 24, ERC 15, other 23; composition - men 184, women 166; percent of women 47.5%; note - total  General Courts percent of women 42.7%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo (consists of the court president and organized into the Civil Room, with a president and 9 judges; the Penal Room, with a president and 14 judges; the Administrative Room, with a president and 32 judges; the Social Room, with a president and 12 judges; and the Military Room, with a president and 7 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional de Espana (consists of 12 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch from candidates proposed by the General Council of the Judiciary Power, a 20-member governing board chaired by the monarch that includes presidential appointees, lawyers, and jurists confirmed by the National Assembly; judges can serve until age 70; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Assembly, executive branch, and the General Council of the Judiciary, and appointed by the monarch for 9-year terms

subordinate courts: National High Court; High Courts of Justice (in each of the autonomous communities); provincial courts; courts of first instance
Political parties and leaders: Asturias Forum or FAC [Carmen MORIYON] Basque Country Unite (Euskal Herria Bildu) or EH Bildu (coalition of 4 Basque pro-independence parties) Basque Nationalist Party or PNV or EAJ [Andoni ORTUZAR] Canarian Coalition or CC [Ana ORAMAS] (coalition of 5 parties) Junts per Catalunia or JxCat  [Carles PUIDGEMONT] Ciudadanos Party or C's [Albert RIVERA] Compromis - Communist Coalition [Joan BALDOVI] New Canary or NCa [Pedro QUEVEDOS] Unidas Podemos [Pablo IGLESIAS Turrion] (formerly Podemos IU; electoral coalition formed for May 2016 election) People's Party or PP [Pablo CASADO] Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Oriol JUNQUERAS i Vies] Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Pedro SANCHEZ] JxCat-Junts Together for Catalonia [Jordi SANCHEZ] Union of People of Navarra or UPN [Javier ESPARZA] Navarra Suma (electoral Coaltion formed by Navarrese People's Union (UPN), Ciudadanos (C's), and the Popular Partty (PP) ahead of the 2019 election) Vox or Vox [Santiago ABASCAL]
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): Pillars of Hercules;
national colors: red, yellow
National anthem: name: "Himno Nacional Espanol" (National Anthem of Spain)
lyrics/music: no lyrics/unknown

note: officially in use between 1770 and 1931, restored in 1939; the Spanish anthem is the first anthem to be officially adopted, but it has no lyrics; in the years prior to 1931 it became known as "Marcha Real" (The Royal March); it first appeared in a 1761 military bugle call book and was replaced by "Himno de Riego" in the years between 1931 and 1939; the long version of the anthem is used for the king, while the short version is used for the prince, prime minister, and occasions such as sporting events
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Santiago CABANAS Ansorena (since 17 September 2018)
chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340
FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico) consulate(s): Kansas City (MO)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Richard BUCHAN (since December 2017) note - also accredited to Andorra
embassy: Calle de Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid
mailing address: PSC 61, APO AE 09642
telephone: [34] (91) 587-2200
FAX: [34] (91) 587-2303
consulate(s) general: Barcelona
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 Economy
After a prolonged recession that began in 2008 in the wake of the global financial crisis, Spain marked the fourth full year of positive economic growth in 2017, with economic activity surpassing its pre-crisis peak, largely because of increased private consumption. The financial crisis of 2008 broke 16 consecutive years of economic growth for Spain, leading to an economic contraction that lasted until late 2013. In that year, the government successfully shored up its struggling banking sector - heavily exposed to the collapse of Spain’s real estate boom - with the help of an EU-funded restructuring and recapitalization program. Until 2014, contraction in bank lending, fiscal austerity, and high unemployment constrained domestic consumption and investment. The unemployment rate rose from a low of about 8% in 2007 to more than 26% in 2013, but labor reforms prompted a modest reduction to 16.4% in 2017. High unemployment strained Spain's public finances, as spending on social benefits increased while tax revenues fell. Spain’s budget deficit peaked at 11.4% of GDP in 2010, but Spain gradually reduced the deficit to about 3.3% of GDP in 2017. Public debt has increased substantially – from 60.1% of GDP in 2010 to nearly 96.7% in 2017. Strong export growth helped bring Spain's current account into surplus in 2013 for the first time since 1986 and sustain Spain’s economic growth. Increasing labor productivity and an internal devaluation resulting from moderating labor costs and lower inflation have improved Spain’s export competitiveness and generated foreign investor interest in the economy, restoring FDI flows. In 2017, the Spanish Government’s minority status constrained its ability to implement controversial labor, pension, health care, tax, and education reforms. The European Commission expects the government to meet its 2017 budget deficit target and anticipates that expected economic growth in 2018 will help the government meet its deficit target. Spain’s borrowing costs are dramatically lower since their peak in mid-2012, and increased economic activity has generated a modest level of inflation, at 2% in 2017.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.778 trillion (2017 est.) $1.727 trillion (2016 est.) $1.674 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $1.314 trillion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2017 est.) 3.2% (2016 est.) 3.6% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $38,400 (2017 est.) $37,200 (2016 est.) $36,100 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 23% of GDP (2017 est.) 22.4% of GDP (2016 est.) 21.5% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 57.7% (2017 est.) government consumption: 18.5% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 20.6% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0.6% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 34.1% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -31.4% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 2.6% (2017 est.) industry: 23.2% (2017 est.) services: 74.2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish
Industries: textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment
Industrial production growth rate: 4% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 22.75 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 24%
services: 71.7% (2009)
Unemployment rate: 17.2% (2017 est.) 19.6% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 21.1% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 24% (2011)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 35.9 (2012) 32 (2005)
Budget: revenues: 498.1 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 539 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 37.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -3.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 98.4% of GDP (2017 est.) 99% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2017 est.) -0.2% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $24.74 billion (2017 est.) $23.77 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $313.7 billion (2017 est.) $280.5 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods
Exports - partners: France 15.1%, Germany 11.3%, Italy 7.8%, Portugal 7.1%, UK 6.9%, US 4.4% (2017)
Imports: $338.6 billion (2017 est.) $300.2 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semi-finished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring and medical control instruments
Imports - partners: Germany 14.2%, France 11.9%, China 6.9%, Italy 6.8%, Netherlands 5.1%, UK 4% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $69.41 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $63.14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $2.094 trillion (31 December 2017 est.) $1.963 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $824.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $739.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $776.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $696.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $787.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $992.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $1.117 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.885 (2017 est.) 0.903 (2016 est.) 0.9214 (2015 est.) 0.7525 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 258.6 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 239.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 14.18 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 21.85 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 105.9 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 47% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 7% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 14% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 32% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 2,252 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 1.325 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 150 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 1.361 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1.296 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 562,400 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 464,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Natural gas - production: 36.81 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 31.27 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 2.888 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 34.63 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 2.548 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 286.7 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 52,484,655
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 107 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: well-developed, modern facilities; one of the largest in Europe, average mobile penetration for Europe; effective competition with encouraging regulation; investment in 5G technologies and services; more than 60 percent of households have access to fiber to the home broadband connections (2018)

domestic: fixed-line 42 per 100 and mobile-cellular 113 telephones per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 34; submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean),n/aEutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries (2017)
Broadcast media: a mixture of both publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; overall, hundreds of TV channels are available including national, regional, local, public, and international channels; satellite and cable TV systems available; multiple national radio networks, a large number of regional radio networks, and a larger number of local radio stations; overall, hundreds of radio stations  (2019)
Internet country code: .es
Internet users: total: 39,123,384
percent of population: 80.6% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 150 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 99
(2013) over 3,047 m: 18 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 14 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 24 (2013)
under 914 m: 24 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 51
(2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 13 (2013)
under 914 m: 36 (2013)
Heliports: 10 (2013)
Pipelines: 10481 km gas, 358 km oil, 4378 km refined products (2017)
Railways: total 15,302 km
(9699 km electrified) (2017) standard gauge: 2,571 km 1.435-m gauge (2,571 km electrified) (2017)
narrow gauge: 1,207 km 1.000-m gauge (400 km electrified) (2017) broad gauge: 11,333 km 1.668-m gauge (6,538 km electrified) (2017) mixed gauge: 190.1 km 1.668-m and 1.435m (190.1 km electrified); 28 km 0.914-m gauge (28 km electrified); 3.6 km 0.600-m gauge
Roadways: total 683,175 km
(2011) paved: 683,175 km (includes 16,205 km of expressways) (2011)
Waterways: 1,000 km (2012)
Merchant marine: total 119

by type: container ship 2, general cargo 17, oil tanker 12, other 88 (2019)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Algeciras, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Tarragona, Valencia (all in Spain); Las Palmas, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (in the Canary Islands) container port(s) (TEUs): Algeciras (4,389,836), Barcelona (2,968,757), Valencia (4,832,156) (2017) LNG terminal(s) (import): Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Mugardos, Sagunto
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 Military
Military branches: Spanish Armed Forces: Army (Ejercito de Tierra), Spanish Navy (Armada Espanola, AE, includes Marine Corps), Spanish Air Force (Ejercito del Aire Espanola, EdA) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-26 years of age for voluntary military service by a Spanish citizen or legal immigrant, 2-3 year obligation; women allowed to serve in all SAF branches, including combat units; no conscription, but Spanish Government retains right to mobilize citizens 19-25 years of age in a national emergency; mandatory retirement of non-NCO enlisted personnel at age 45 or 58, depending on service length (2013)
Military expenditures: 0.93% of GDP (2018) 0.91% of GDP (2017) 1.21% of GDP (2016) 1.18% of GDP (2015) 1.23% of GDP (2014)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; after voters in the UK chose to leave the EU in a June 2016 referendum, Spain again proposed shared sovereignty of Gibraltar; UK officials rejected Spain’s joint sovereignty proposal; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); Morocco serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 13,765 (Syria), 10,555 (Ukraine) (2018) note - estimate represents asylum applicants since the beginning of the Ukraine crisis in 2014 to November 2018; 31,620 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2019)
stateless persons: 2,455 (2018) note: 142,954 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-August 2019); 65,325 migrant arrivals in 2018
Illicit drugs: despite rigorous law enforcement efforts, North African, Latin American, Galician, and other European traffickers take advantage of Spain's long coastline to land large shipments of cocaine and hashish for distribution to the European market; consumer for Latin American cocaine and North African hashish; destination and minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering site for Colombian narcotics trafficking organizations and organized crime
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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