Kenya Population: 48,397,527

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 History
Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978, when Vice President Daniel Arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982, after which time the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) changed the constitution to make itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud. President MOI stepped down in December 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA, the son of founding president Jomo KENYATTA, and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform. KIBAKI's reelection in December 2007 brought charges of vote rigging from Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) candidate Raila ODINGA and unleashed two months of violence in which approximately 1,100 people died. African Union-sponsored mediation led by former UN Secretary General Kofi ANNAN in late February 2008 resulted in a power-sharing accord bringing ODINGA into the government in the restored position of prime minister. The power sharing accord included a broad reform agenda, the centerpiece of which was constitutional reform. In August 2010, Kenyans overwhelmingly adopted a new constitution in a national referendum. The new constitution introduced additional checks and balances to executive power and devolved power and resources to 47 newly created counties. It also eliminated the position of prime minister. Uhuru KENYATTA won the first presidential election under the new constitution in March 2013, and was sworn into office the following month; he began a second term in November 2017 following a contentious, repeat election.

 Geography
    The Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value; Lake Victoria, the world's largest tropical lake and the second largest fresh water lake, is shared among three countries: Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda
Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N, 38 00 E
Area: total: 580,367 sq km
land: 569,140 sq km
water: 11,227 sq km

Size comparison: five times the size of Ohio; slightly more than twice the size of Nevada
Land Boundaries: total: 3,457 km border countries (5): Ethiopia 867 km, Somalia 684 km, South Sudan 317 km, Tanzania 775 km, Uganda 814 km
Coastline: 536 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior
Terrain: low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west
Natural resources: limestone, soda ash, salt, gemstones, fluorspar, zinc, diatomite, gypsum, wildlife, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 48.1% (2011 est.) arable land: 9.8% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0.9% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 37.4% (2011 est.) forest: 6.1% (2011 est.)
other: 45.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 1,030 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: recurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons volcanism: limited volcanic activity; the Barrier (1,032 m) last erupted in 1921; South Island is the only other historically active volcano
Current Environment Issues: water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; water shortage and degraded water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; flooding; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Kenyan(s)
adjective: Kenyan
Ethnic groups: Kikuyu 17.2%, Luhya 13.8%, Kalejin 12.9%, Luo 10.5%, Kamba 10.1%, Somali 6.2%, Kisii 5.7%, Mijikenda 5.1%, Meru 4.3%, Turkana 2.6%, Masai 2.2%, other 9.4% (2014 est.)
Languages: English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
Religions: Christian 83% (Protestant 47.7%, Catholic 23.4%, other Christian 11.9%), Muslim 11.2%, Traditionalists 1.7%, other 1.6%, none 2.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2009 est.)
Population: 48,397,527 (July 2018 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 39.03% (male 9,474,968 /female 9,416,609)
15-24 years: 19.61% (male 4,737,647 /female 4,752,896)
25-54 years: 34.27% (male 8,393,673 /female 8,193,800)
55-64 years: 4% (male 894,371 /female 1,040,883)
65 years and over: 3.08% (male 640,005 /female 852,675) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 78.3 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 73.7 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 21.7 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 20 years
male: 19.9 years
female: 20.2 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.57% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 22.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 27% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 4.386 million NAIROBI (capital)
1.214 million Mombassa (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 20.3 years (2014 est.) note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Maternal mortality rate: 510 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 36.1 deaths/1,000 live births male: 40.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 31.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.6 years male: 63.1 years
female: 66.1 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.81 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 60.5% (2017)
Physicians density: 0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density: 1.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 81.6% of population
rural: 56.8% of population
total: 63.2% of population

unimproved:
urban: 18.4% of population
rural: 43.2% of population
total: 36.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 31.2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 29.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 30.1% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 68.8% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 70.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 69.9% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 4.8% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1.5 million (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 28,000 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 7.1% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 11.2% (2014)
Education expenditures: 5.2% of GDP (2017)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 78%
male: 81.1%
female: 74.9% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years male: 11 years female: 11 years (2009)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
conventional short form: Kenya
local long form: Republic of Kenya/Jamhuri ya Kenya
local short form: Kenya
former: British East Africa
etymology: named for Mount Kenya; the meaning of the name is unclear but may derive from the Kikuyu, Embu, and Kamba words "kirinyaga," "kirenyaa," and "kiinyaa" - all of which mean "God's resting place"
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Nairobi
geographic coordinates: 1 17 S, 36 49 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the name derives from the Maasai expression meaning "cool waters" and refers to a cold water stream that flowed through the area in the late 19th century
Administrative divisions: 47 counties; Baringo, Bomet, Bungoma, Busia, Elgeyo/Marakwet, Embu, Garissa, Homa Bay, Isiolo, Kajiado, Kakamega, Kericho, Kiambu, Kilifi, Kirinyaga, Kisii, Kisumu, Kitui, Kwale, Laikipia, Lamu, Machakos, Makueni, Mandera, Marsabit, Meru, Migori, Mombasa, Murang'a, Nairobi City, Nakuru, Nandi, Narok, Nyamira, Nyandarua, Nyeri, Samburu, Siaya, Taita/Taveta, Tana River, Tharaka-Nithi, Trans Nzoia, Turkana, Uasin Gishu, Vihiga, Wajir, West Pokot
Independence: 12 December 1963 (from the UK)
National holiday: Jamhuri Day (Independence Day), 12 December (1963); note - Madaraka Day, 1 June (1963) marks the day Kenya attained internal self-rule
Constitution: history: previous 1963, 1969; latest drafted 6 May 2010, passed by referendum 4 August 2010, promulgated 27 August 2010 amendments: proposed by either house of Parliament or by petition of at least one million eligible voters; passage of amendments by Parliament requires approval by at least two-thirds majority vote of both houses in each of two readings, approval in a referendum by majority of votes cast by at least 20% participation of eligible voters in at least one-half of Kenya’s counties, and approval by the president; passage of amendments introduced by petition requires approval by a majority of county assemblies, approval by majority vote of both houses, and approval by the president (2017)
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review in the new Supreme Court established by the new constitution
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - position of the prime minister was abolished after the March 2013 elections

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, subject to confirmation by the National Assembly elections/appointments: president and deputy president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); in addition to receiving an absolute majority popular vote, the presidential candidate must also win at least 25% of the votes cast in at least 24 of the 47 counties to avoid a runoff; election last held on 26 October 2017 (next to be held in 2022)

election results: Uhuru KENYATTA reelected president; percent of vote - Uhuru KENYATTA (Jubilee Party) 98.3%, Raila ODINGA (ODM) 1%, other 0.7%; note - Kenya held a previous presidential election on 8 August 2017, but Kenya's Supreme Court on 1 September 2017 nullified the results, citing irregularities; the political opposition boycotted the October vote
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament consists of: Senate (67 seats; 47 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 20 directly elected by proportional representation vote - 16 women, 2 representing youth, and 2 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms) National Assembly (349 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 47 women in single-seat constituencies elected by simple majority vote, and 12 members nominated by the National Assembly - 6 representing youth and 6 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 8 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2022) National Assembly - last held on 8 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2022)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Jubilee Party 24; National Super Alliance 28, other 14, independent 1; composition - men 46, women 41, percent of women is 31.3% National Assembly - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Jubilee Party 165, National Super Alliance 119, other 51, independent 13; composition - men 273, women 76, percent of women 21.8%; note - total Parliament percent of women is 23%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of chief and deputy chief justices and 5 judges) judge selection and term of office: chief and deputy chief justices nominated by Judicial Service Commission (JSC) and appointed by the president with approval of the National Assembly; other judges nominated by the JSC and appointed by president; chief justice serves a nonrenewable 10-year term or until age 70, whichever comes first; other judges serve until age 70

subordinate courts: High Court; Court of Appeal; military courts; magistrates' courts; religious courts
Political parties and leaders: Alliance Party of Kenya or APK [Kiraitu MURUNGI] Amani National Congress or ANC [Musalia MUDAVADI] Federal Party of Kenya or FPK [Cyrus JIRONGA] Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya or FORD-K [Moses WETANGULA] Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-P [Henry OBWOCHA] Jubilee Party [Uhuru KENYATTA] Kenya African National Union or KANU [Gideon MOI] National Rainbow Coalition or NARC [Charity NGILU] Orange Democratic Movement Party of Kenya or ODM [Raila ODINGA] Wiper Democratic Movement-K or WDM-K (formerly Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya or ODM-K) [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): lion;
national colors: black, red, green, white
National anthem: name: "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu" (Oh God of All Creation)
lyrics/music: Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE/traditional, adapted by Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE

note: adopted 1963; based on a traditional Kenyan folk song
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Robinson Njeru GITHAE (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kyle MCCARTER (since 12 March 2019)
embassy: United Nations Avenue, Nairobi; P.O. Box 606 Village Market, Nairobi 00621
mailing address: American Embassy Nairobi, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-8900
telephone: [254] (20) 363-6000
FAX: [254] (20) 363-6157
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 Economy
Kenya is the economic, financial, and transport hub of East Africa. Kenya’s real GDP growth has averaged over 5% for the last decade. Since 2014, Kenya has been ranked as a lower middle income country because its per capita GDP crossed a World Bank threshold. While Kenya has a growing entrepreneurial middle class and steady growth, its economic development has been impaired by weak governance and corruption. Although reliable numbers are hard to find, unemployment and under-employment are extremely high, and could be near 40% of the population. In 2013, the country adopted a devolved system of government with the creation of 47 counties, and is in the process of devolving state revenues and responsibilities to the counties. Agriculture remains the backbone of the Kenyan economy, contributing one-third of GDP. About 75% of Kenya’s population of roughly 48.5 million work at least part-time in the agricultural sector, including livestock and pastoral activities. Over 75% of agricultural output is from small-scale, rain-fed farming or livestock production. Tourism also holds a significant place in Kenya’s economy. In spite of political turmoil throughout the second half of 2017, tourism was up 20%, showcasing the strength of this sector. Kenya has long been a target of terrorist activity and has struggled with instability along its northeastern borders. Some high visibility terrorist attacks during 2013-2015 (e.g., at Nairobi’s Westgate Mall and Garissa University) affected the tourism industry severely, but the sector rebounded strongly in 2016-2017 and appears poised to continue growing. Inadequate infrastructure continues to hamper Kenya’s efforts to improve its annual growth so that it can meaningfully address poverty and unemployment. The KENYATTA administration has been successful in courting external investment for infrastructure development. International financial institutions and donors remain important to Kenya's growth and development, but Kenya has also successfully raised capital in the global bond market issuing its first sovereign bond offering in mid-2014, with a second occurring in February 2018. The first phase of a Chinese-financed and constructed standard gauge railway connecting Mombasa and Nairobi opened in May 2017. In 2016 the government was forced to take over three small and undercapitalized banks when underlying weaknesses were exposed. The government also enacted legislation that limits interest rates banks can charge on loans and set a rate that banks must pay their depositors. This measure led to a sharp shrinkage of credit in the economy. A prolonged election cycle in 2017 hurt the economy, drained government resources, and slowed GDP growth. Drought-like conditions in parts of the country pushed 2017 inflation above 8%, but the rate had fallen to 4.5% in February 2018. The economy, however, is well placed to resume its decade-long 5%-6% growth rate. While fiscal deficits continue to pose risks in the medium term, other economic indicators, including foreign exchange reserves, interest rates, current account deficits, remittances and FDI are positive. The credit and drought-related impediments were temporary. Now In his second term, President KENYATTA has pledged to make economic growth and development a centerpiece of his second administration, focusing on his "Big Four" initiatives of universal healthcare, food security, affordable housing, and expansion of manufacturing.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $163.7 billion (2017 est.) $156 billion (2016 est.) $147.4 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $79.22 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.9% (2017 est.) 5.9% (2016 est.) 5.7% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,500 (2017 est.) $3,400 (2016 est.) $3,300 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 10.4% of GDP (2017 est.) 11% of GDP (2016 est.) 11.4% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 79.5% (2017 est.) government consumption: 14.3% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 18.9% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: -1% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 13.9% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -25.5% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 34.5% (2017 est.) industry: 17.8% (2017 est.) services: 47.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: tea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, fish, pork, poultry, eggs
Industries: small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, clothing, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products, horticulture, oil refining; aluminum, steel, lead; cement, commercial ship repair, tourism, information technology
Industrial production growth rate: 3.6% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 19.6 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 61.1%
industry: 6.7%
services: 32.2% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate: 40% (2013 est.) 40% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line: 36.1% (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 37.8% (2005)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 48.5 (2016 est.) 42.5 (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: 13.95 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 19.24 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 17.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -6.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 54.2% of GDP (2017 est.) 53.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (2017 est.) 6.3% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$5.021 billion (2017 est.) -$3.697 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $5.792 billion (2017 est.) $5.695 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: tea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement, apparel
Exports - partners: Uganda 10.8%, Pakistan 10.6%, US 8.1%, Netherlands 7.3%, UK 6.4%, Tanzania 4.8%, UAE 4.4% (2017)
Imports: $15.99 billion (2017 est.) $13.41 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, oil, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics
Imports - partners: China 22.5%, India 9.9%, UAE 8.7%, Saudi Arabia 5.1%, Japan 4.5% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $7.354 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $7.256 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $27.59 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $37.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $8.738 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $5.317 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $1.545 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $335.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $19.33 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $26.48 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $26.16 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Exchange rates: Kenyan shillings (KES) per US dollar - 102.1 (2017 est.) 101.5 (2016 est.) 101.504 (2015 est.) 98.179 (2014 est.) 87.921 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 9.634 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 7.863 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 39.1 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 184 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.401 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 33% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 34% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 33% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 12,550 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 13,960 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 109,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 173 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 90,620 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 17.98 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 42,815,109
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 90 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: the mobile-cellular system is generally good, especially in urban areas; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; to encourage advancement of the LTE services the govt. has fostered an open-access approach; govt. progresses with national broadband strategy; more licensing being awarded has led to competition which is good for growth (2018)

domestic: multiple providers in the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom in mobile-cellular telephone usage with teledensity reaching 90 per 100 persons; fixed-line subscriptions stand at less than 1 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 254; landing point for the EASSy, TEAMS and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat; launched first micro satellites
Broadcast media: about a half-dozen large-scale privately owned media companies with TV and radio stations, as well as a state-owned TV broadcaster, provide service nationwide; satellite and cable TV subscription services available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates 2 national radio channels and provides regional and local radio services in multiple languages; many private radio stations broadcast on a national level along with over 100 private and non-profit regional stations broadcasting in local languages; TV transmissions of all major international broadcasters available, mostly via paid subscriptions; direct radio frequency modulation transmissions available for several foreign government-owned broadcasters (2019)
Internet country code: .ke
Internet users: total: 12,165,597
percent of population: 26% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 197 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 16
(2017) over 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2017)
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 181
(2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 107 (2013)
under 914 m: 60 (2013)
Pipelines: 4 km oil, 1,432 km refined products (2018)
Railways: total 3,819 km
(2018) standard gauge: 47,285 km 1.435-m gauge (2018)
narrow gauge: 3,334 km 1.000-m gauge (2018)
Roadways: total 177,800 km
(2018) paved: 14,420 km (8,500 km highways, 1,872 urban roads, and 4,048 rural roads) (2017)
unpaved: 147,032 km (2017)
Waterways: none specifically; the only significant inland waterway is the part of Lake Victoria within the boundaries of Kenya; Kisumu is the main port and has ferry connections to Uganda and Tanzania (2011)
Merchant marine: total 22

by type: general cargo 1, oil tanker 2, other 19 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Kisumu, Mombasa LNG terminal(s) (import): Mombasa
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 Military
Military branches: Kenya Defence Forces: Kenya Army, Kenya Navy, Kenya Air Force (2019)
Military service age and obligation: 18-26 years of age for male and female voluntary service (under 18 with parental consent), with a 9-year obligation (7 years for Kenyan Navy) and subsequent 3-year reenlistments; applicants must be Kenyan citizens and provide a national identity card (obtained at age 18) and a school-leaving certificate, and undergo a series of mental and physical examinations; women serve under the same terms and conditions as men; mandatory retirement at age 55 but personnel leaving before this age remain in a reserve status until they reach age 55 unless they were removed for disciplinary reasons; there is no active military reserve, although the Ministry of Defence has stated its desire to create one as recently as 2017 (2019)
Military expenditures: 1.3% of GDP (2019) 1.3% of GDP (2018) 1.4% of GDP (2017) 1.32% of GDP (2016) 1.32% of GDP (2015)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Kenya served as an important mediator in brokering Sudan's north-south separation in February 2005; as of March 2019, Kenya provides shelter to nearly 475,000 refugees and asylum seekers, including Ugandans who flee across the border periodically to seek protection from Lord's Resistance Army rebels; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists; the boundary that separates Kenya's and Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the "Ilemi Triangle," which Kenya has administered since colonial times
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 256,683 (Somalia) (refugees and asylum seekers), 118,067 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers), 41,899 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers), 26,967 (Ethiopia) (refugees and asylum seekers), 13,852 (Burundi) (refugees and asylum seekers), 10,041 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2019) IDPs: 162,000 (election-related violence, intercommunal violence, resource conflicts, al-Shabaab attacks in 2017 and 2018) (2018)
stateless persons: 18,500 (2018); note - the stateless population consists of Nubians, Kenyan Somalis, and coastal Arabs; the Nubians are descendants of Sudanese soldiers recruited by the British to fight for them in East Africa more than a century ago; Nubians did not receive Kenyan citizenship when the country became independent in 1963; only recently have Nubians become a formally recognized tribe and had less trouble obtaining national IDs; Galjeel and other Somalis who have lived in Kenya for decades are included with more recent Somali refugees and denied ID cards
Illicit drugs: widespread harvesting of small plots of marijuana; transit country for South Asian heroin destined for Europe and North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa; significant potential for money-laundering activity given the country's status as a regional financial center; massive corruption, and relatively high levels of narcotics-associated activities
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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