Cambodia Population: 15,957,223


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Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Attacks by the Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire, ushering in a long period of decline. The king placed the country under French protection in 1863, and it became part of French Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II, Cambodia gained full independence from France in 1953. In April 1975, after a seven-year struggle, communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns. At least 1.5 million Cambodians died from execution, forced hardships, or starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, began a 10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of civil war. The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a cease-fire, which was not fully respected by the Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy under a coalition government. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. The remaining elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999. Some of the surviving Khmer Rouge leaders have been tried or are awaiting trial for crimes against humanity by a hybrid UN-Cambodian tribunal supported by international assistance. Elections in July 2003 were relatively peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending political parties before a coalition government was formed. In October 2004, King Norodom SIHANOUK abdicated the throne and his son, Prince Norodom SIHAMONI, was selected to succeed him. The most recent local (Commune Council) elections were held in Cambodia in 2012, with little of the preelection violence that preceded prior elections. National elections in July 2013 were disputed, with the opposition - the Cambodian National Rescue Party (CNRP) - boycotting the National Assembly. The political impasse was ended nearly a year later, with the CNRP agreeing to enter parliament in exchange for ruling party commitments to electoral and legislative reforms.

A land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap (Southeast Asia's largest freshwater lake)
Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos
Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 105 00 E
Area: total: 181,035 sq km
land: 176,515 sq km
water: 4,520 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Oklahoma
Land Boundaries: total: 2,530 km border countries (3): Laos 555 km, Thailand 817 km, Vietnam 1,158 km
Coastline: 443 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: oil and gas, timber, gemstones, iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 32.1% arable land 22.7%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 8.5% forest: 56.5%
other: 11.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 3,540 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts
Current Environment Issues: illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, most of the population does not have access to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing and overfishing
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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Nationality: noun: Cambodian(s)
adjective: Cambodian
Ethnic groups: Khmer 97.6%, Cham 1.2%, Chinese 0.1%, Vietnamese 0.1%, other 0.9% (2013 est.)
Languages: Khmer (official) 96.3%, other 3.7% (2008 est.)
Religions: Buddhist (official) 96.9%, Muslim 1.9%, Christian 0.4%, other 0.8% (2008 est.)
Population: 15,957,223 note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 31.24% (male 2,515,435/female 2,468,855)
15-24 years: 19.02% (male 1,501,070/female 1,533,500)
25-54 years: 40.18% (male 3,139,851/female 3,271,077)
55-64 years: 5.43% (male 342,063/female 524,114)
65 years and over: 4.14% (male 248,454/female 412,804) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 55.6%
youth dependency ratio: 49.2%
elderly dependency ratio: 6.4%
potential support ratio: 15.6% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 24.9 years
male: 24.2 years
female: 25.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.56% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 23.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 20.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.65% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: PHNOM PENH (capital) 1.731 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.65 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 22.9 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 161 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 48.7 deaths/1,000 live births male: 55.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 41.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.5 years male: 62 years
female: 67.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.56 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 50.5% (2010/11)
Health expenditures: 5.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.17 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density: 0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 69.1% of population
total: 75.5% of population

urban: 0% of population
rural: 30.9% of population
total: 24.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 88.1% of population
rural: 30.5% of population
total: 42.4% of population

urban: 11.9% of population
rural: 69.5% of population
total: 57.6% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.63% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 74,100 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,000 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 2.9% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 23.9% (2014)
Education expenditures: 1.9% of GDP (2014)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 77.2%
male: 84.5%
female: 70.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2008)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 0.5% male: 0.7%
female: 0.4% note: according to official statistics (2010 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
conventional short form: Cambodia
local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea (phonetic transliteration)
local short form: Kampuchea Kampuchea
former: Khmer Republic, Democratic Kampuchea, People's Republic of Kampuchea, State of Cambodia
etymology: the English name Cambodia is an anglicization of the French Cambodge, which is the French transliteration of the native name Kampuchea
Government type: parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Phnom Penh
geographic coordinates: 11 33 N, 104 55 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and 1 municipality (krong, singular and plural) provinces: Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Speu, Kampong Thom, Kampot, Kandal, Kep, Koh Kong, Kratie, Mondolkiri, Oddar Meanchey, Pailin, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Pursat, Ratanakiri, Siem Reap, Sihanoukville, Stung Treng, Svay Rieng, Takeo, Tbong Khmum municipalities: Phnom Penh (Phnum Penh)
Independence: 9 November 1953 (from France)
National holiday: Independence Day, 9 November (1953)
Constitution: previous 1947; latest promulgated 21 September 1993; amended 1999, 2008, 2014 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system (influenced by the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia) customary law, Communist legal theory, and common law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 October 2004)

head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985); Permanent Deputy Prime Minister MEN SAM AN (since 25 September 2008); Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 3 February 1992), SOK AN, TEA BANH, HOR NAMHONG (all since 16 July 2004), BIN CHHIN (since 5 September 2007), KEAT CHHON, YIM CHHAI LY (since 24 September 2008), KE KIMYAN (since 12 March 2009)

cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch elections/appointments: monarch chosen by the 9-member, Royal Council of the Throne from among all eligible males of royal descent; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament of Cambodia consists of the Senate (61 seats; 57 indirectly elected by parliamentarians and commune councils, 2 indirectly elected by the National Assembly, and 2 appointed by the monarch; members serve 6-year terms) and the National Assembly (123 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms) note: two seats will be added to the National Assembly in 2018, for a total of 125

elections: Senate - last held on 4 February 2012 (next to be held in 2018); National Assembly - last held on 28 July 2013 (next to be held in July 2018)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - CPP 77.8%, SRP 22.2%; seats by party - CPP 46, SRP 11; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP 48.8%, CNRP 44.5%, other 6.7%; seats by party - CPP 68, CNRP 55
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Council (organized into 5- and 9-judge panels and includes a court chief and deputy chief); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members); note - in 1997, the Cambodian Government requested UN assistance in establishing trials to prosecute former Khmer Rouge senior leaders for crimes against humanity committed during the 1975-1979 Khmer Rouge regime; the Extraordinary Chambers of the Courts in Cambodia (also called the Khmer Rouge Tribunal) were established and began hearings for the first case in 2009; court proceeding were ongoing in 2016 judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Council judge candidates recommended by the Supreme Council of Magistracy, a 17-member body chaired by the monarch and includes other high-level judicial officers; judges of both courts appointed by the monarch; Supreme Court judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges appointed for 9-year terms with one-third of the court renewed every 3 years

subordinate courts: Appellate Court; provincial and municipal courts; Military Court
Political parties and leaders: Cambodian National Rescue Party or CNRP [SAM RANGSI, also spelled SAM RAINSY] (a July 2012 merger between the Sam Rangsi Party or SRP and the former Human Rights Party or HRP [KHEM SOKHA, also spelled KEM SOKHA]) Cambodian People's Party or CPP [HUN SEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Partnership for Transparency Fund or PTF (anti-corruption organization) Students Movement for Democracy The Committee for Free and Fair Elections or Comfrel other: human rights organizations; labor unions; youth groups
National symbol(s): Angkor Wat temple, kouprey (wild ox); national colors: red, blue
National anthem: name: "Nokoreach" (Royal Kingdom)
lyrics/music: CHUON NAT/F. PERRUCHOT and J. JEKYLL

note: adopted 1941, restored 1993; the anthem, based on a Cambodian folk tune, was restored after the defeat of the Communist regime
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador CHUM BUN RONG (since 3 August 2015)
chancery: 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador William A. HEIDT (since 2 December 2015)
mailing address: Unit 8166, Box P, APO AP 96546
telephone: [855] (23) 728-000
FAX: [855] (23) 728-600
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Cambodia has experienced strong economic growth over the last decade; GDP grew at an average annual rate of over 8% between 2000 and 2010 and at least 7% since 2011. The tourism, garment, construction and real estate, and agriculture sectors accounted for the bulk of growth. Around 600,000 people, the majority of whom are women, are employed in the garment and footwear sector. An additional 500,000 Cambodians are employed in the tourism sector, and a further 50,000 people in construction. Tourism has continued to grow rapidly with foreign arrivals exceeding 2 million per year since 2007 and reaching around 4.5 million visitors in 2014. Mining also is attracting some investor interest and the government has touted opportunities for mining bauxite, gold, iron and gems. Cambodia remains one of the poorest countries in Asia and long-term economic development remains a daunting challenge, inhibited by endemic corruption, limited human resources, high income inequality, and poor job prospects. As of 2012, approximately 2.66 million people live on less than $1.20 per day, and 37% of Cambodian children under the age of 5 suffer from chronic malnutrition. More than 50% of the population is less than 25 years old. The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the impoverished countryside, which also lacks basic infrastructure. The Cambodian Government has been working with bilateral and multilateral donors, including the Asian Development Bank, the World Bank and IMF, to address the country's many pressing needs; more than 30% of the government budget comes from donor assistance. A major economic challenge for Cambodia over the next decade will be fashioning an economic environment in which the private sector can create enough jobs to handle Cambodia's demographic imbalance.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $58.94 billion (2016 est.) $55.09 billion (2015 est.) $51.47 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $19.37 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 7% (2016 est.) 7% (2015 est.) 7.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,700 (2016 est.) $3,500 (2015 est.) $3,400 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 12.7% of GDP (2016 est.) 11.8% of GDP (2015 est.) 11.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 78.5%
government consumption: 5.4%
investment in fixed capital: 21%
investment in inventories: 1.6%
exports of goods and services: 64.7%
imports of goods and services: -71.2% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 78.5%
government consumption: 5.4%
investment in fixed capital: 21%
investment in inventories: 1.6%
exports of goods and services: 64.7%
imports of goods and services: -71.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, rubber, corn, vegetables, cashews, cassava (manioc, tapioca), silk
Industries: tourism, garments, construction, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles
Industrial production growth rate: 8.3% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 6.643 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 48.7%
industry: 19.9%
services: 31.5% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate: 0.3% (2013 est.) 0.2% (2012 est.) note: according to official statistics; underemployment is high
Population below poverty line: 17.7% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 28% (2013 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 37.9 (2008 est.) 41.9 (2004 est.)
Budget: revenues: $3.388 billion
expenditures: $3.562 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 17.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 33.9% of GDP (2014 est.) 33.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (2016 est.) 1.2% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.969 billion (2016 est.) -$1.889 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $8.762 billion (2016 est.) $8.453 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear
Exports - partners: US 23.1%, UK 8.8%, Germany 8.2%, Japan 7.4%, Canada 6.7%, China 5.1%, Vietnam 5%, Thailand 4.9%, Netherlands 4.1% (2015)
Imports: $12.32 billion (2016 est.) $11.92 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products
Imports - partners: Thailand 28.7%, China 22.2%, Vietnam 16.4%, Hong Kong 6.1%, Singapore 5.7% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $8.477 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $7.376 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $8.46 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $7.483 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $29.17 billion (2014 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: riels (KHR) per US dollar - 4,066 (2016 est.) 4,067.8 (2015 est.) 4,067.8 (2014 est.) 4,037.5 (2013 est.) 4,033 (2012 est.)
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Electricity - production: 3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 4.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 1.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 1.4 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 32.7% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 57.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 10% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 36,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 36,240 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 6.5 million Mt (2013 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total: 20.851 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 133 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate fixed-line and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile-cellular phone systems are widely used in urban areas to bypass deficiencies in the fixed-line network; mobile-phone coverage is rapidly expanding in rural areas

domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 2 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, aided by competition among service providers, has increased to over 130 per 100 persons

international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) (2015)
Broadcast media: mixture of state-owned, joint public-private, and privately owned broadcast media; 9 TV broadcast stations with most operating on multiple channels, including 1 state-operated station broadcasting from multiple locations, 6 stations either jointly operate (2009)
Internet country code: .kh
Internet users: total: 2.985 million percent of population: 19% (July 2015 est.)
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Airports: 16 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 6

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Railways: total 642 km

narrow gauge: 642 km 1.000-m gauge

note: under restoration (2014)
Roadways: total 44,709 km
paved: 3,607 km
unpaved: 41,102 km (2010)
Waterways: 3,700 km (mainly on Mekong River) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 544

by type: bulk carrier 38, cargo 459, carrier 7, chemical tanker 4, container 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll off 4, vehicle carrier 1

foreign-owned: 352 (Belgium 1, Canada 2, China 177, Cyprus 4, Egypt 4, Estonia 1, French Polynesia 1, Gabon 1, Greece 2, Hong Kong 10, Indonesia 2, Ireland 1, Japan 1, Lebanon 5, Russia 50, Singapore 3, South Korea 10, Syria 22, Taiwan 1, Turkey 15, UAE 2, UK 1, Ukraine 35, (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Sihanoukville (Kampong Saom)
river port(s): Phnom Penh (Mekong)
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Military branches: Royal Cambodian Armed Forces: Royal Cambodian Army, Royal Khmer Navy, Royal Cambodian Air Force; the Royal Cambodian Gendarmerie is the military police force responsible for internal security; the National Committee for Maritime Security performs Coast Guard functions and has representation from military and civilian agencies (2016)
Military service age and obligation: 18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2012)
Military expenditures: 2% of GDP (2015 est.) 1.8% of GDP (2014) 1.58% of GDP (2013) 1.54% of GDP (2012) 1.5% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Cambodia is concerned about Laos' extensive upstream dam construction; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary; in 2011 Thailand and Cambodia resorted to arms in the dispute over the location of the boundary on the precipice surmounted by Preah Vihear Temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 and part of a UN World Heritage site; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; progress on a joint development area with Vietnam is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands
Illicit drugs: narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the government, military, and police; limited methamphetamine production; vulnerable to money laundering due to its cash-based economy and porous borders
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