Moldova Population: 3,437,720

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 History
A large portion of present day Moldovan territory became a province of the Russian Empire in 1812 and then unified with Romania in 1918 in the aftermath of World War I. This territory was then incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although Moldova has been independent from the Soviet Union since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru River supporting the breakaway region of Transnistria, whose population is roughly equally composed of ethnic Ukrainians, Russians, and Moldovans. Years of Communist Party rule in Moldova from 2001-2009 ultimately ended with election-related violent protests and a rerun of parliamentary elections in 2009. Since then, a series of pro-European ruling coalitions have governed Moldova. As a result of the country's most recent legislative election in February 2019, parliamentary seats are split among the left-leaning Socialist Party (35 seats), the ruling Democratic Party (30 seats), and the center-right opposition ACUM bloc (26 seats). After the elections, ideological differences among the three main political parties led to a prolonged government formation process. The parties have until June 2019 to form a government or snap elections will be called.

 Geography
    Landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone
Location: Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 29 00 E
Area: total: 33,851 sq km
land: 32,891 sq km
water: 960 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than Maryland
Land Boundaries: total: 1,885 km border countries (2): Romania 683 km, Ukraine 1202 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: moderate winters, warm summers
Terrain: rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Natural resources: lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, limestone, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 74.9% (2011 est.) arable land: 55.1% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 9.1% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 10.7% (2011 est.) forest: 11.9% (2011 est.)
other: 13.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 2,283 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: landslides
Current Environment Issues: heavy use of agricultural chemicals, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion and declining soil fertility from poor farming methods
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Moldovan(s)
adjective: Moldovan
Ethnic groups: Moldovan 75.1%, Romanian 7%, Ukrainian 6.6%, Gagauz 4.6%, Russian 4.1%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 0.8% (2014 est.)
Languages: Moldovan/Romanian 80.2% (official) (56.7% identify their mother tongue as Moldovan, which is virtually the same as Romanian; 23.5% identify Romanian as their mother tongue), Russian 9.7%, Gagauz 4.2% (a Turkish language), Ukrainian 3.9%, Bulgarian 1.5%, Romani 0.3%, other 0.2% (2014 est.) note: data represent mother tongue
Religions: Orthodox 90.1%, other Christian 2.6%, other 0.1%, agnostic (2014 est.)
Population: 3,437,720 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.29% (male 324,002 /female 304,737)
15-24 years: 11.84% (male 210,988 /female 196,063)
25-54 years: 43.29% (male 752,758 /female 735,471)
55-64 years: 13.5% (male 213,410 /female 250,755)
65 years and over: 13.08% (male 176,252 /female 273,284) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 34.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 21.2 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 13.4 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 7.5 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 37 years
male: 35.3 years
female: 38.9 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: -1.06% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 11.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 12.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -9.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 42.6% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: -0.07% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 510,000 CHISINAU (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 24 years (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 23 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 11.7 deaths/1,000 live births male: 13.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.3 years male: 67.4 years
female: 75.4 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.57 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 59.5% (2012)
Physicians density: 3.2 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density: 5.8 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 96.9% of population
rural: 81.4% of population
total: 88.4% of population

unimproved:
urban: 3.1% of population
rural: 18.6% of population
total: 11.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 87.8% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 67.1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 76.4% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 12.2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 32.9% of population (2015 est.)
total: 23.6% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.6% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 15,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <500 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 18.9% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 2.2% (2012)
Education expenditures: 6.7% of GDP (2017)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years male: 11 years female: 12 years (2015)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 7.4% male: 7.5% female: 7.2% (2018 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
conventional short form: Moldova
local long form: Republica Moldova
local short form: Moldova
former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: named for the Moldova River in neighboring eastern Romania
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Chisinau in Romanian (Kishinev in Russian)
geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 28 51 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: pronounced KEE-shee-now (KIH-shi-nyov)
etymology: origin unclear but may derive from the archaic Romanian word "chisla" ("spring" or "water source") and "noua" ("new") because the original settlement was built at the site of a small spring
Administrative divisions: 32 raions (raioane, singular - raion), 3 municipalities (municipii, singular - municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala) raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni; municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau; autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia; territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului (Transnistria)
Independence: 27 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday: Independence Day, 27 August (1991)
Constitution: history: previous 1978; latest adopted 29 July 1994, effective 27 August 1994 amendments: proposed by voter petition (at least 200,000 eligible voters), by at least one-third of Parliament members, or by the government; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament within one year of initial proposal; revisions to constitutional articles on sovereignty, independence, and neutrality require majority vote by referendum; articles on fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2010; note – in early 2016, the Moldovan Constitutional Court decision returned the country to direct presidential elections, reversing a 2000 constitutional amendment that allowed Parliament to select the president (2016)
Legal system: civil law system with Germanic law influences; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Igor DODON (since 23 December 2016); note – in 2017-19, DODON was temporarily suspended several times by the Moldovan Constitutional Court for rejecting ministerial appointments and for refusing to sign legislation

head of government: Prime Minister Maia SANDU (since 8 June 2019)

cabinet: Cabinet proposed by the prime minister-designate, nominated by the president, approved through a vote of confidence in Parliament elections/appointments: president directly elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 November 2016 (next to be held in fall 2020); prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence for his/her proposed work program from the Parliament

election results: Igor DODON elected president; percent of vote - Igor DODON (PSRM) 52.2%, Maia SANDU (PAS) 47.8%; Maia SANDU (PAS) designated prime minister; Parliament vote - 61 of 101
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Parliament (101 seats; 51 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 50 members directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by closed party-list proportional representation vote; all members serve 4-year terms

elections: last held on 24 February 2019 (next scheduled for February 2023)

election results: percent of vote by party - PSRM 31.2%, ACUM (PPDA + PAS) 26.8%, PDM 23.6%, PS 8.3%, other 10.1%; seats by party - PSRM 35, ACUM (PPDA + PAS) 26, PDM 30, PS 7, independent 3; composition - men 78, women 23, percent of women 22.8%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the chief judge, 3 deputy-chief judges, 45 judges, and 7 assistant judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 6 judges); note - the Constitutional Court is autonomous to the other branches of government; the Court interprets the Constitution and reviews the constitutionality of parliamentary laws and decisions, decrees of the president, and acts of the government judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Justice judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistracy, an 11-member body of judicial officials; all judges serve 4-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed 2 each by Parliament, the president, and the Higher Council of Magistracy for 6-year terms; court president elected by other court judges for a 3-year term

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Court of Business Audit; municipal courts
Political parties and leaders: represented in Parliament: Action and Solidarity Party or PAS [Maia SANDU] Democratic Party of Moldova or PDM [Vladimir PLAHOTNIUC] Dignity and Truth Platform or PPDA [Andrei NASTASE] NOW Platform or ACUM (PPDA + PAS) Shor Party or PS [Ilan SHOR] Socialist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PSRM [Zinaida GRECEANII] not represented in Parliament, participated in recent elections (2014-2019): Anti-Mafia Movement or MPA [Sergiu MOCANU] Centrist Union of Moldova or UCM [Mihai PETRACHE] Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Victor CIOBANU] Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN] Conservative Party or PC [Natalia NIRCA] Democracy at Home Party or PDA [Vasile COSTIUC] Democratic Action Party or PAD [Mihai GODEA] Ecologist Green Party or PVE [Anatolie PROHNITCHI] European People’s Party of Moldova or EPPM [Iurie LEANCA] Law and Justice Party or PLD [Nicolae ALEXEI] Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova or PLDM [Tudor DELIU] Liberal Party or PL [Dorin CHIRTOACA] "Motherland" Party or PP [Sergiu BIRIUCOV] National Liberal Party or PNL [Vitalia PAVLICENKO] Our Home Moldova or PCNM [Grigore PETRENCO] Our Party or PN [Renato USATII] Party of National Unity [Anatol SALARU] People’s Party of Moldova or PPRM [Alexandru OLEINIC] Regions Party of Moldova or PRM [Alexandr KALININ] Socialist People’s Party of Moldova or PPSM [Victor STEPANIUC]
International organization participation: BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, CIS, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): aurochs (a type of wild cattle);
national colors: blue, yellow, red
National anthem: name: "Limba noastra" (Our Language)
lyrics/music: Alexei MATEEVICI/Alexandru CRISTEA

note: adopted 1994
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Cristina BALAN (since 22 June 2018)
chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dereck J. HOGAN (since 15 October 2018)
embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [373] (22) 40-8300
FAX: [373] (22) 23-3044
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 Economy
Despite recent progress, Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe. With a moderate climate and productive farmland, Moldova's economy relies heavily on its agriculture sector, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, wheat, and tobacco. Moldova also depends on annual remittances of about $1.2 billion - almost 15% of GDP - from the roughly one million Moldovans working in Europe, Israel, Russia, and elsewhere. With few natural energy resources, Moldova imports almost all of its energy supplies from Russia and Ukraine. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy is underscored by a more than $6 billion debt to Russian natural gas supplier Gazprom, largely the result of unreimbursed natural gas consumption in the breakaway region of Transnistria. Moldova and Romania inaugurated the Ungheni-Iasi natural gas interconnector project in August 2014. The 43-kilometer pipeline between Moldova and Romania, allows for both the import and export of natural gas. Several technical and regulatory delays kept gas from flowing into Moldova until March 2015. Romanian gas exports to Moldova are largely symbolic. In 2018, Moldova awarded a tender to Romanian Transgaz to construct a pipeline connecting Ungheni to Chisinau, bringing the gas to Moldovan population centers. Moldova also seeks to connect with the European power grid by 2022. The government's stated goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. Moldova experienced better than expected economic growth in 2017, largely driven by increased consumption, increased revenue from agricultural exports, and improved tax collection. During fall 2014, Moldova signed an Association Agreement and a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement with the EU (AA/DCFTA), connecting Moldovan products to the world’s largest market. The EU AA/DCFTA has contributed to significant growth in Moldova’s exports to the EU. In 2017, the EU purchased over 65% of Moldova’s exports, a major change from 20 years previously when the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) received over 69% of Moldova’s exports. A $1 billion asset-stripping heist of Moldovan banks in late 2014 delivered a significant shock to the economy in 2015; the subsequent bank bailout increased inflationary pressures and contributed to the depreciation of the leu and a minor recession. Moldova’s growth has also been hampered by endemic corruption, which limits business growth and deters foreign investment, and Russian restrictions on imports of Moldova’s agricultural products. The government’s push to restore stability and implement meaningful reform led to the approval in 2016 of a $179 million three-year IMF program focused on improving the banking and fiscal environments, along with additional assistance programs from the EU, World Bank, and Romania. Moldova received two IMF tranches in 2017, totaling over $42.5 million. Over the longer term, Moldova's economy remains vulnerable to corruption, political uncertainty, weak administrative capacity, vested bureaucratic interests, energy import dependence, Russian political and economic pressure, heavy dependence on agricultural exports, and unresolved separatism in Moldova's Transnistria region.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $23.72 billion (2017 est.) $22.69 billion (2016 est.) $21.75 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $9.556 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.5% (2017 est.) 4.3% (2016 est.) -0.4% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $6,700 (2017 est.) $6,400 (2016 est.) $6,100 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 13.5% of GDP (2017 est.) 15.9% of GDP (2016 est.) 14.5% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 85.8% (2017 est.) government consumption: 19% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 21.9% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 1.4% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 42.5% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -70.7% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 17.7% (2017 est.) industry: 20.3% (2017 est.) services: 62% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: vegetables, fruits, grapes, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, tobacco; beef, milk; wine
Industries: sugar processing, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles
Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 1.295 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 32.3%
industry: 12%
services: 55.7% (2017 est.)
Unemployment rate: 4.1% (2017 est.) 4.2% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 9.6% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.2%
highest 10%: 22.1% (2014 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 26.8 (2015 est.) 26.8 (2014 est.)
Budget: revenues: 2.886 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 2.947 billion (2017 est.)

note: National Public Budget
Taxes and other revenues: 30.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -0.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 31.5% of GDP (2017 est.) 35.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.6% (2017 est.) 6.4% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$602 million (2017 est.) -$268 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $1.858 billion (2017 est.) $2.045 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: foodstuffs, textiles, machinery
Exports - partners: Romania 24.6%, Russia 13.7%, Italy 9.1%, Germany 6.2%, Ukraine 5.3%, UK 4.6%, Poland 4.6% (2017)
Imports: $4.427 billion (2017 est.) $3.635 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles
Imports - partners: Romania 15.5%, Ukraine 11.4%, Russia 10.6%, China 10.4%, Germany 8.9%, Italy 6.9%, Turkey 6.1% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.803 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $2.206 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $6.549 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $6.138 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $3.701 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $3.581 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $252.7 million (31 December 2017) $206.1 million (31 December 2016)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $18.42 million (31 December 2015 est.) $9.723 million (31 December 2015 est.) $50.47 million (31 December 2014 est.)
Exchange rates: Moldovan lei (MDL) per US dollar - 18.49 (2017 est.) 19.924 (2016 est.) 19.924 (2015 est.) 19.83 (2014 est.) 14.036 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 5.49 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 4.4 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 4 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 515,000 kW (2016 est.) note: excludes Transnistria
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 86% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 12% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 20 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 232 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 18,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 275 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 18,160 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 11.33 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 2.52 billion cu m (2017 est.) note: excludes breakaway Transnistria
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 2.52 billion cu m (2017 est.) note: excludes breakaway Transnistria
Natural gas - proved reserves: n/acu m (1 January 2017 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 7.653 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 3,662,968
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 105 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: the mobile market has extended the reach of service to outside the cities and across most of the country; endeavors to join the EU have promoted regulatory issues to be in line with EU principles and standards; market is competitive with 80 ISPs active; LTE services available and mobile broadband growth (2018)

domestic: competition among mobile telephone providers has spurred subscriptions; little interest in expanding fixed-line service 33 per 100; mobile-cellular teledensity sits at 105 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - at least 3 (Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik)
Broadcast media: state-owned national radio-TV broadcaster operates 1 TV and 1 radio station; a total of nearly 70 terrestrial TV channels and some 50 radio stations are in operation; Russian and Romanian channels also are available (2019)
Internet country code: .md
Internet users: total: 2,492,444
percent of population: 71% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 7 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 5
(2017) over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 2
(2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: 1916 km gas (2014)
Railways: total 1,171 km
(2014) standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2014) broad gauge: 1,157 km 1.520-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 9,352 km
(2012) paved: 8,835 km (2012)
unpaved: 517 km (2012)
Waterways: 558 km (in public use on Danube, Dniester and Prut Rivers) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 151

by type: bulk carrier 3, container ship 3, general cargo 113, oil tanker 8, other 24 (2018)
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 Military
Military branches: National Army: Land Forces Command, Air Forces Command (includes air defense unit); Carabinieri Troops: a component of the Ministry of Internal Affairs that also has official status as a service of the Armed Forces during wartime (2017)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; male registration required at age 16; 1-year service obligation; note - the ultimate abolition of military conscription has been announced (2018)
Military expenditures: 0.37% of GDP (2017) 0.44% of GDP (2016) 0.35% of GDP (2015) 0.35% of GDP (2014) 0.33% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 6,779 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015)
stateless persons: 4,451 (2018)
Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity
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