Montenegro Population: 644,578


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The use of the name Crna Gora or Black Mountain (Montenegro) began in the 13th century in reference to a highland region in the Serbian province of Zeta. The later medieval state of Zeta maintained its existence until 1496 when Montenegro finally fell under Ottoman rule. Over subsequent centuries, Montenegro managed to maintain a level of autonomy within the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro was a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it transformed into a secular principality. Montenegro was recognized as an independent sovereign principality at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. After World War I, during which Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, creating the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, shifting to a looser State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia barely exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally restore its independence on 3 June 2006.

Strategic location along the Adriatic coast
Location: Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 19 18 E
Area: total: 13,812 sq km
land: 13,452 sq km
water: 360 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land Boundaries: total: 680 km border countries (5): Albania 186 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 242 km, Croatia 19 km, Kosovo 76 km, Serbia 157 km
Coastline: 293.5 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: defined by treaty
Climate: Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
Terrain: highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: bauxite, hydroelectricity
Land use: agricultural land: 38.2% arable land 12.9%; permanent crops 1.2%; permanent pasture 24.1% forest: 40.4%
other: 21.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 24 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes
Current Environment Issues: pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Montenegrin
Ethnic groups: Montenegrin 45%, Serbian 28.7%, Bosniak 8.7%, Albanian 4.9%, Muslim 3.3%, Roma 1%, Croat 1%, other 2.6%, unspecified 4.9% (2011 est.)
Languages: Serbian 42.9%, Montenegrin (official) 37%, Bosnian 5.3%, Albanian 5.3%, Serbo-Croat 2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 4% (2011 est.)
Religions: Orthodox 72.1%, Muslim 19.1%, Catholic 3.4%, atheist 1.2%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.6% (2011 est.)
Population: 644,578 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.13% (male 47,983/female 49,527)
15-24 years: 9.92% (male 29,003/female 34,907)
25-54 years: 46.83% (male 163,055/female 138,792)
55-64 years: 13.37% (male 42,998/female 43,168)
65 years and over: 14.76% (male 38,014/female 57,131) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 47.7%
youth dependency ratio: 27.6%
elderly dependency ratio: 20.2%
potential support ratio: 5% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 40.2 years
male: 39.3 years
female: 41.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.35% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 10.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 64% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: PODGORICA (capital) 165,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 26.3 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 7 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 39.4% (2005/06)
Health expenditures: 6.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 2.11 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density: 4 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99.2% of population
total: 99.7% of population

urban: 0% of population
rural: 0.8% of population
total: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 92.2% of population
total: 95.9% of population

urban: 2% of population
rural: 7.8% of population
total: 4.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 21.4% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 1% (2013)
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.7%
male: 99.5%
female: 98% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2010)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 41.1% male: 42.3%
female: 39.7% (2012 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Montenegro
local long form: none
local short form: Crna Gora
former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro
etymology: the country's name locally as well as in most Western European languages means "black mountain" and refers to the dark coniferous forests on Mount Lovcen and the surrounding area
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Podgorica; note - Cetinje retains the status of "Old Royal Capital"
geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 23 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Gusinje, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Petnijica, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, Zabljak
Independence: 3 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro)
National holiday: National Day, 13 July (1878, the day the Berlin Congress recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world, and 1941, the day the Montenegrins staged an uprising against Nazi occupiers and sided with the partisan Communist movement)
Constitution: history: several previous; latest adopted 22 October 2007 amendments: proposed by the president of Montenegro, by the government, or by at least 25 members of the Assembly; passage of draft proposals requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly, followed by a public hearing; passage of draft amendments requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; changes to certain constitutional articles such as sovereignty, state symbols, citizenship, and constitutional change procedures require three-fifths majority vote in a referendum; amended 2013, 2014 (2016)
Legal system: civil law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 6 April 2008)

head of government: Prime Minister Dusko MARKOVIC (since 28 November 2016); note - Prime Minister Milo DJUKANOVIC resigned 26 October 2016

cabinet: Ministers act as cabinet elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 April 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister nominated by the president, approved by the Assembly

election results: Filip VUJANOVIC reelected president; percent of vote - Filip VUJANOVIC (DPS) 51.2%, Miodrag LEKIC (independent) 48.8%%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Assembly or Skupstina (81 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 16 October 2016 (next to be held by October 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - DPS 41.4%, DF 20.3%, Key Coalition, 11.1%, DCG 10.0%, SDP 5.2%, SD 3.3%, BS, 3.2%, Albanians Decisively 1.3%, HGI .5%, other 3.7%; seats by party/coalition - DPS 36, DF 18, Key Coalition 9, DCG 8, SDP 4, SD 2, BS 2, Albanians Decisively 1, HGI 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Vrhovni Sud (consists of the court president, deputy president, and 15 judges); Constitutional Court or Ustavni Sud (consists of the court president and 7 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president proposed by general session of the Supreme Court and elected by the Judicial Council, a 9-member body consisting of judges, lawyers designated by the Assembly, and the minister of judicial affairs; Supreme Court president elected for a single renewable, 5-year term; other judges elected by the Judicial Council for life; Constitutional Court judges - 2 proposed by the president of Montenegro and 5 by the Assembly, and elected by the Assembly; court president elected from among the court members; court president elected for 3 years, other judges 9 years

subordinate courts: Administrative Courts; Appellate Court; Commercial Courts; High Courts; basic courts
Political parties and leaders: Albanians Decisively [Genci NIMANBEGU] (includes FORCA, AA, DUA) Albanian Alternative or AA [Nik DJELOSAJ] Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC] Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Marija VUCINOVIC] Democratic Alliance or DEMOS [Miodrag LEKIC] Democratic Front or DF [collective leadership] (includes NOVA, PZP, DNP, RP) Democratic Montenegro or DCG [Aleksa BECIC] Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC] Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Mehmet ZENKA] Key Coalition [Miodrag LEKIC] (includes DEMOS, SNP, URA] Movement for Change or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC] New Democratic Power or FORCA [Nazif CUNGU] New Serb Democracy or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC] Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC] Social Democrats or SD [Ivan BRAJOVIC] Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdjan MILIC] United Reform Action or URA [Zarko RAKCEVIC] Workers' Party or RP [Janko VUCINIC]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): double-headed eagle; national colors: red, gold
National anthem: name: "Oj, svijetla majska zoro" (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)
lyrics/music: Sekula DRLJEVIC/unknown, arranged by Zarko MIKOVIC

note: adopted 2004; music based on a Montenegrin folk song
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108
FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Margaret UYEHARA (since 19 February 2015)
embassy: Dzona Dzeksona 2, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [382] (0) 20 410 500
FAX: [382] (0) 20 241 358
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Montenegro's economy is transitioning to a market system. From the beginning of the privatization process in 1999 through 2015, around 85% of Montenegrin state-owned companies have been privatized, including 100% of banking, telecommunications, and oil distribution. Tourism brings in twice as many visitors as Montenegro’s total population every year. Several new luxury tourism complexes are in various stages of development along the coast, and a number are being offered in connection with nearby boating and yachting facilities. Montenegro uses the euro as its domestic currency, though it is not an official member of the euro zone. In January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF, and in December 2011, the WTO. Montenegro began negotiations to join the EC in June, 2012, having met the conditions set down by the European Council, which called on Montenegro to take steps to fight corruption and organized crime. The government recognizes the need to remove impediments in order to remain competitive and open the economy to foreign investors. The biggest foreign investors in Montenegro are Italy, Norway, Austria, Russia, Hungary and the UK. Net foreign direct investment in 2014 reached $483 million and investment per capita is one of the highest in Europe. Montenegro is currently planning major overhauls of its road and rail networks, and possible expansions of its air transportation system. In 2014, the Government of Montenegro selected two Chinese companies to construct a 41 km-long section of the country’s highway system. Construction will cost around $1.1 billion. Montenegro first instituted a value-added tax (VAT) in April 2003, and introduced differentiated VAT rates of 17% and 7% (for tourism) in January 2006. In May 2013, the Montenegrin Government raised the higher level VAT rate to 19%.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $10.61 billion (2016 est.) $10.1 billion (2015 est.) $9.789 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $4.242 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.1% (2016 est.) 3.2% (2015 est.) 1.8% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $17,000 (2016 est.) $16,200 (2015 est.) $15,700 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 5.4% of GDP (2016 est.) 5.1% of GDP (2015 est.) 4.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 81.8%
government consumption: 21.2%
investment in fixed capital: 19.5%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 42.1%
imports of goods and services: -64.5% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 81.8%
government consumption: 21.2%
investment in fixed capital: 19.5%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 42.1%
imports of goods and services: -64.5% (2013 est.)
Agriculture - products: tobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes; sheep
Industries: steelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism
Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (2013 est.)
Labor force: 263,200 (2014 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 5.3%
industry: 17.9%
services: 76.8% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate: 18.5% (2014 est.) 19.1% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line: 8.6% (2013 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 26.2 (2013 est.) 24.3 (2010)
Budget: revenues: $1.56 billion
expenditures: $1.63 billion (2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 36.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
Public debt: 59.5% of GDP (31 December 2014 est.) 57.9% of GDP (2013 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as int
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.5% (2016 est.) 1.6% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$437 million (2016 est.) -$387 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $370.2 million (2014 est.) $489.2 million (2012 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Exports - partners: Croatia 22.7%, Serbia 22.7%, Slovenia 7.8% (2012 est.)
Imports: $1.982 billion (2014 est.) $2.4 billion (2012 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Imports - partners: Serbia 29.3%, Greece 8.7%, China 7.1% (2012 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $599.6 million (31 December 2014 est.)
Debt - external: $1.576 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $1.433 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $483 million (31 December 2014 est.) $446.5 million (31 December 2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $133 million (31 December 2014 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $7.532 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $3.827 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $3.322 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.9214 (2016 est.) 0.885 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.) 0.78 (2012 est.)
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Electricity - production: 3.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 2.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 600 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 900 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 900,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 24.6% of total installed capacity (20113 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 75.3% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 6,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 622 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 5,987 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 18 million Mt (2013 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total: 1.008 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 156 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites

domestic: GSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing

international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system (2015)
Broadcast media: state-funded national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial TV networks, 1 satellite TV channel, and 2 radio networks; 4 public TV stations and some 20 private TV stations; 14 local public radio stations and more than 40 private radio stations (2007)
Internet country code: .me
Internet users: total: 418,000 percent of population: 64.6% (July 2015 est.)
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Airports: 5 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2012)
Railways: total 250 km
standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (169 km electrified) (2014)
Roadways: total 7,762 km
paved: 7,141 km
unpaved: 621 km (2010)
Merchant marine: total 2

by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 1

registered in other countries: 4 (Bahamas 2, Honduras 1, Slovakia 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Bar
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Military branches: Armed Forces of the Republic of Montenegro: Army of Montenegro (includes Montenegrin Navy (Mornarica Crne Gore, MCG)), Air Force (2011)
Military service age and obligation: 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.65% of GDP (2015) 1.74% of GDP (2014) 1.59% of GDP (2013) 1.69% of GDP (2012) 1.75% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 3,262 (2015)
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