North Macedonia Population: 2,118,945

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 History
North Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991 under the name of "Macedonia." Greek objection to the new country’s name, insisting it implied territorial pretensions to the northern Greek province of Macedonia, and democratic backsliding for several years stalled the country’s movement toward Euro-Atlantic integration. Immediately after Macedonia declared independence, Greece sought to block Macedonian efforts to gain UN membership if the name "Macedonia" was used. The country was eventually admitted to the UN in 1993 as "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia," and at the same time it agreed to UN-sponsored negotiations on the name dispute. In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, but the issue of the name remained unresolved and negotiations for a solution continued. Over time, the US and over 130 other nations recognized Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia. Ethnic Albanian grievances over perceived political and economic inequities escalated into a conflict in 2001 that eventually led to the internationally brokered Ohrid Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting and established guidelines for constitutional amendments and the creation of new laws that enhanced the rights of minorities. In January 2018, the government adopted a new law on languages, which elevated the Albanian language to an official language at the national level, with the Macedonian language remaining the sole official language in international relations. Relations between ethnic Macedonians and ethnic Albanians remain complicated, however. North Macedonia's pro-Western government has used its time in office since 2017 to sign a historic deal with Greece in June 2018 to end the name dispute and revive Skopje's NATO and EU membership prospects. This followed a nearly three-year political crisis that engulfed the country but ended in June 2017 following a six-month-long government formation period after a closely contested election in December 2016. The crisis began after the 2014 legislative and presidential election, and escalated in 2015 when the opposition party began releasing wiretapped material that revealed alleged widespread government corruption and abuse. Although an EU candidate since 2005, North Macedonia has yet to open EU accession negotiations. The country still faces challenges, including fully implementing reforms to overcome years of democratic backsliding and stimulating economic growth and development. In June 2018, Macedonia and Greece signed the Prespa Accord whereby the Republic of Macedonia agreed to change its name to the Republic of North Macedonia. Following ratification by both countries, the agreement went in to force on 12 February 2019. North Macedonia signed an accession protocol to become a NATO member state in February 2019.

 Geography
    Landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
Location: Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
Geographic coordinates: 41 50 N, 22 00 E
Area: total: 25,713 sq km
land: 25,433 sq km
water: 280 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than Vermont; almost four times the size of Delaware
Land Boundaries: total: 838 km border countries (5): Albania 181 km, Bulgaria 162 km, Greece 234 km, Kosovo 160 km, Serbia 101 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Terrain: mountainous with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
Natural resources: low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 44.3% (2011 est.) arable land: 16.4% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 1.4% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 26.5% (2011 est.) forest: 39.8% (2011 est.)
other: 15.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 1,280 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: high seismic risks
Current Environment Issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants; Skopje has severe air pollution problems every winter as a result of industrial emissions, smoke from wood-buring stoves, and exhaust fumes from old cars
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian
Ethnic groups: Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Romani 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 est.) note: North Macedonia has not conducted a census since 2002; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 6.5–13% of North Macedonia’s population
Languages: Macedonian (official) 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Romani 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other (includes Aromanian (Vlach) and Bosnian) 1.8% (2002 est.) note: minority languages are co-official with Macedonian in municipalities where they are spoken by at least 20% of the population; Albanian is co-official in Tetovo, Brvenica, Vrapciste, and other municipalities; Turkish is co-official in Centar Zupa and Plasnica; Romani is co-official in Suto Orizari; Aromanian is co-official in Krusevo; Serbian is co-official in Cucer Sandevo
Religions: Macedonian Orthodox 64.8%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.4%, other and unspecified 1.5% (2002 est.)
Population: 2,118,945 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.24% (male 177,719 /female 166,374)
15-24 years: 13.41% (male 147,292 /female 136,851)
25-54 years: 44.55% (male 478,851 /female 465,058)
55-64 years: 12.43% (male 129,731 /female 133,645)
65 years and over: 13.38% (male 123,101 /female 160,323) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 41.6 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 23.8 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 17.7 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 5.6 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 38.2 years
male: 37.2 years
female: 39.3 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.19% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 10.8 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 58% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.45% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 584,000 SKOPJE (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 26.8 years (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 8 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 7.8 deaths/1,000 live births male: 8.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.9 years male: 73.8 years
female: 78.2 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.49 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 40.2% (2011)
Physicians density: 2.87 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density: 4.4 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99.8% of population
rural: 98.9% of population
total: 99.4% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0.2% of population
rural: 1.1% of population
total: 0.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 97.2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 82.6% of population (2015 est.)
total: 90.9% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 2.8% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 17.4% of population (2015 est.)
total: 9.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: <.1% (201 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: <500 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <100 (2016 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 22.4% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 1.3% (2011)
Education expenditures: n/a
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 97.8%
male: 98.8%
female: 96.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 13 years male: 13 years female: 13 years (2015)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 46.7% male: 45.7% female: 48.6% (2017 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of North Macedonia
conventional short form: North Macedonia
local long form: Republika Severna Makedonija
local short form: Severna Makedonija
former: Democratic Federal Macedonia, People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia, Republic of Macedonia
etymology: the country name derives from the ancient kingdom of Macedon (7th to 2nd centuries B.C.)
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Skopje
geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 21 26 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: Skopje derives from its ancient name Scupi, the Latin designation of a classical era Greco-Roman frontier fortress town; the name may go back even further to a pre-Greek, Illyrian name
Administrative divisions: 70 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina) and 1 city* (grad); Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Caska, Centar Zupa, Cesinovo-Oblesevo, Cucer Sandevo, Debar, Debarca, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rostusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Skopje*, Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vrapciste, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci
Independence: 8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Yugoslavia)
National holiday: Independence Day, 8 September (1991); also known as National Day
Constitution: history: several previous; latest adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991 amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by at least 30 members of the Assembly, or by petition of at least 150,000 citizens; final approval requires a two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; amended several times, last in 2019 (2019)
Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Stevo PENDAROVSKI (since 12 May 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Zoran ZAEV (since 31 May 2017)

cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Assembly by simple majority vote; note - after the December 2016 election, VMRO-DPMNE won a plurality of the seats but failed to gather a majority in the Assembly to establish a government; SDSM, DUI, and the Alliance for Albanians formed an alliance; however, the president refused to give the SDSM leader the mandate to form a new government; VMRO-DPMNE blocked the election of a Speaker of the Assembly until late April 2017, when a majority of Assembly members elected Talat XHAFERI as speaker; in response, demonstrators disrupted the Assembly building, attacking journalists and Assembly members; President Gjorge IVANOV eventually gave the mandate to SDSM’s Zoran ZAEV to form a new coalition government, and the Assembly confirmed the Cabinet on 31 May 2017 elections/appointments: president directly elected using a modified 2-round system; a candidate can only be elected in the first round with an absolute majority from all registered voters; in the second round, voter turnout must be at least 40% for the result to be deemed valid; president elected for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 April and 5 May 2019 (next to be held in 2024); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the Assembly

election results: Stevo PENDAROVSKI elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Stevo PENDAROVSKI (SDSM) 44.8%, Gordana SILJANOVSKA-DAVKOVA (VMRO-DPMNE) 44.2%, Blenim REKA (independent) 11.1%; percent of vote in second round - Stevo PENDAROVSKI 53.6%, Gordana SILJANOVSKA-DAVKOVA 46.4%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Assembly - Sobraine in Macedonian, Kuvend in Albanian (between 120 and 140 seats, currently 120; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote; possibility of 3 directly elected in diaspora constituencies by simple majority vote provided there is sufficient voter turnout; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 11 December 2016, with a second round held in one polling station on 25 December 2016 (next to be held in 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - VMRO-DPMNE 38.1%, SDSM coalition 36.7%, BDI 7.3%, Besa Movement 4.9%, AfA 3.1%, PDSh 2.7%, other 7.2%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE 51, SDSM coalition 49, BDI 10, Besa Movement 5, AfA 3, PDSh 2; note - the 3 seats for diaspora went unfilled because none of the candidates won the 6,500 minimum vote threshold note: seats by party/coalition as of May 2019 - ruling coalition 68 (SDSM coalition 49, BDI 10, Besa Movement 3, PDSh 2, other 5), opposition coalition 52 (VMRO-DPMNE coalition 48, Besa Movement 2, AfA 2); composition - men 75, women 45, percent of women 37.5%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 22 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial Council, a 7-member body of legal professionals, and appointed by the Assembly; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Assembly for nonrenewable, 9-year terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Basic Courts
Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Albanians or AfA [Ziadin SELA] Besa Movement [Bilal KASAMI] Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh [Menduh THACI] Democratic Union for Integration or BDI [Ali AHMETI] Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Hristijan MICKOSKI] Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Goran MILEVSKI] Social Democratic Union of Macedonia or SDSM [Zoran ZAEV] Socialist Party of Macedonia or SPM [Ljubislav IVANOV-DZINGO] note: during the 2016 parliamentary elections SDSM and VMRO-DPMNE each led coalitions
International organization participation: BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (candidate country), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): eight-rayed sun;
national colors: red, yellow
National anthem: name: "Denes nad Makedonija" (Today Over Macedonia)
lyrics/music: Vlado MALESKI/Todor SKALOVSKI

note: written in 1943 and adopted in 1991, the song previously served as the anthem of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia while part of Yugoslavia
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Vasko NAUMOVSKI (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2131
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Detroit, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jess L. BAILY (since 12 February 2015)
embassy: Str. Samoilova, Nr. 21, 1000 Skopje
mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, US Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone: [389] (2) 310-2000
FAX: [389] (2) 310-2499
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 Economy
Since its independence in 1991, Macedonia has made progress in liberalizing its economy and improving its business environment. Its low tax rates and free economic zones have helped to attract foreign investment, which is still low relative to the rest of Europe. Corruption and weak rule of law remain significant problems. Some businesses complain of opaque regulations and unequal enforcement of the law. Macedonia’s economy is closely linked to Europe as a customer for exports and source of investment, and has suffered as a result of prolonged weakness in the euro zone. Unemployment has remained consistently high at about 23%, but may be overstated based on the existence of an extensive gray market, estimated to be between 20% and 45% of GDP, which is not captured by official statistics. Macedonia is working to build a country-wide natural gas pipeline and distribution network. Currently, Macedonia receives its small natural gas supplies from Russia via Bulgaria. In 2016, Macedonia signed a memorandum of understanding with Greece to build an interconnector that could connect to the Trans Adriatic Pipeline that will traverse the region once complete, or to an LNG import terminal in Greece. Macedonia maintained macroeconomic stability through the global financial crisis by conducting prudent monetary policy, which keeps the domestic currency pegged to the euro, and inflation at a low level. However, in the last two years, the internal political crisis has hampered economic performance, with GDP growth slowing in 2016 and 2017, and both domestic private and public investments declining. Fiscal policies were lax, with unproductive public expenditures, including subsidies and pension increases, and rising guarantees for the debt of state owned enterprises, and fiscal targets were consistently missed. In 2017, public debt stabilized at about 47% of GDP, still relatively low compared to its Western Balkan neighbors and the rest of Europe.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $31.03 billion (2017 est.) $31.02 billion (2016 est.) $30.15 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars; Macedonia has a large informal sector that may not be reflected in these data
GDP (official exchange rate): $11.37 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0% (2017 est.) 2.9% (2016 est.) 3.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $14,900 (2017 est.) $15,000 (2016 est.) $14,600 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 30.3% of GDP (2017 est.) 29.9% of GDP (2016 est.) 28.5% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 65.6% (2017 est.) government consumption: 15.6% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 13.6% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 20.2% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 54% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -69% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 10.9% (2017 est.) industry: 26.6% (2017 est.) services: 62.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: grapes, tobacco, vegetables, fruits; milk, eggs
Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals, automotive parts
Industrial production growth rate: -7.8% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 950,800 (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 16.2%
industry: 29.2%
services: 54.5% (2017 est.)
Unemployment rate: 22.4% (2017 est.) 23.8% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 21.5% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 25% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 33.7 (2015) 35.2 (2014)
Budget: revenues: 3.295 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 3.605 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 29% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -2.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 39.3% of GDP (2017 est.) 39.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: official data from Ministry of Finance; data cover central government debt; this data excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; includes treasury debt held by foreign entitites; excludes debt issued by sub-national entities; there are no debt instruments sold for social funds
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.4% (2017 est.) -0.2% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$151 million (2017 est.) -$293 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $4.601 billion (2017 est.) $3.75 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco; textiles, miscellaneous manufactures, iron, steel; automotive parts
Exports - partners: Germany 46.7%, Bulgaria 6.1%, Serbia 4.4%, Belgium 4.1% (2017)
Imports: $6.63 billion (2017 est.) $5.805 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products
Imports - partners: Germany 11.9%, UK 10%, Greece 8%, Serbia 7.1%, China 5.9%, Italy 5.5%, Turkey 4.5%, Bulgaria 4.3% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.802 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $2.755 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $8.79 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $7.685 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $6.937 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $6.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $1.169 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $849.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $2.078 billion (31 December 2016) $1.853 billion (31 December 2015) $2.269 billion (31 December 2014)
Exchange rates: Macedonian denars (MKD) per US dollar - 55.8 (2017 est.) 55.733 (2016 est.) 55.733 (2015 est.) 55.537 (2014 est.) 46.437 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 5.396 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 6.42 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 58.5 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 2.191 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 1.828 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 60% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 37% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 3% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 142 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 21,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 3,065 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 23,560 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 198.2 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 198.2 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (31 December 2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 7.459 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 2,121,805
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 101 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: being part of the EU pre-accession process has led to a stronger teledensity with closer regulatory framework and independent regulators; administrative ties with the European Union have led to progress; broadband services are widely available; more customers moving to fiber networks; 2 mobile network operators; end of roaming tariffs (2018)

domestic: fixed-line 17 per 100 and mobile-cellular 101 per 100 subscriptions (2018)

international: country code - 389
Broadcast media: public service TV broadcaster Macedonian Radio and Television operates 3 national terrestrial TV channels and 2 satellite TV channels; additionally, there are 10 regional TV stations that broadcast nationally using terrestrial transmitters, 54 TV channels with concession for cable TV, 9 regional TV stations with concessions for cable TV; 4 satellite TV channels broadcasting on a national level, 21 local commercial TV channels, and a large number of cable operators that offer domestic and international programming; the public radio broadcaster operates over 3 stations; there are 4 privately owned radio stations that broadcast nationally; 17 regional radio stations, and 49 local commercial radio stations (2019)
Internet country code: .mk
Internet users: total: 1.475 million
percent of population: 70.4% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 10 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 8
(2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
under 914 m: 6 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 2
(2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: 262 km gas, 120 km oil (2017)
Railways: total 925 km
(2017) standard gauge: 925 km 1.435-m gauge (313 km electrified) (2017)
Roadways: total 14,182 km
(includes 290 km of expressways) (2017) paved: 9,633 km (2017)
unpaved: 4,549 km (2017)
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 Military
Military branches: Army of the Republic of North Macedonia (ARSM; includes General Staff and subordinate Joint Operational Command, Logistic Support Command, Training and Doctrine Command, Special Ops Regiment, Electronic Surveillance Center, and Air Surveillance Center) (2019)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2008 (2013)
Military expenditures: 1.19% of GDP (2018) 0.9% of GDP (2017) 0.97% of GDP (2016) 1.05% of GDP (2015) 1.09% of GDP (2014)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Kosovo and North Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 571 (2018) note: 482,591 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-August 2019); North Macedonia is predominantly a transit country and hosts fewer than 50 refugees and asylum seekers as of October 2017; 3,132 migrant arrivals in 2018
Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although not a financial center and most criminal activity is thought to be domestic, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement
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