Mongolia Population: 3,031,330


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The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a communist regime was installed in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; today, more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Following a peaceful democratic revolution in 1990, the ex-communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) - which took the name Mongolian People’s Party (MPP) in 2010 - has competed for political power with the Democratic Party (DP), the main opposition party, and several other smaller parties, including a new party formed by former President ENKHBAYAR, which confusingly adopted for itself the MPRP name. In its most recent Parliamentary elections in June 2016, Mongolians handed the MPP overwhelming control of Parliament, largely pushing out the DP, which had overseen a sharp decline in Mongolia’s economy during its control of Parliament in the preceding years. President ELBEGDORJ, a DP member, will finish his second term as president in 2017, and is not eligible to run for reelection.

Landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia
Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 105 00 E
Area: total: 1,564,116 sq km
land: 1,553,556 sq km
water: 10,560 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Alaska; more than twice the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 8,082 km border countries (2): China 4,630 km, Russia 3,452 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
Land use: agricultural land: 73% arable land 0.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 72.6% forest: 7%
other: 20% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 840 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: dust storms; grassland and forest fires; drought; "zud," which is harsh winter conditions
Current Environment Issues: limited natural freshwater resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian
Ethnic groups: Khalkh 81.9%, Kazak 3.8%, Dorvod 2.7%, Bayad 2.1%, Buryat-Bouriates 1.7%, Zakhchin 1.2%, Dariganga 1%, Uriankhai 1%, other 4.6% (2010 est.)
Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90% (official), Turkic, Russian (1999)
Religions: Buddhist 53%, Muslim 3%, Christian 2.2%, Shamanist 2.9%, other 0.4%, none 38.6% (2010 est.)
Population: 3,031,330 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 26.92% (male 416,053/female 399,954)
15-24 years: 16.76% (male 256,897/female 251,160)
25-54 years: 45.45% (male 667,509/female 710,116)
55-64 years: 6.68% (male 92,781/female 109,768)
65 years and over: 4.19% (male 51,691/female 75,401) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 47.6%
youth dependency ratio: 41.7%
elderly dependency ratio: 6%
potential support ratio: 16.7% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 27.9 years
male: 27.1 years
female: 28.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.25% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 19.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 72% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.78% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: ULAANBAATAR (capital) 1.377 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 20.5 note: median age at first birth among women 20-24 (2008 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 44 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 21.8 deaths/1,000 live births male: 24.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.6 years male: 65.4 years
female: 74.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.13 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 54.9% (2010)
Health expenditures: 4.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 2.84 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
Hospital bed density: 6.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 66.4% of population
rural: 59.2% of population
total: 64.4% of population

urban: 33.6% of population
rural: 40.8% of population
total: 35.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 66.4% of population
rural: 42.6% of population
total: 59.7% of population

urban: 33.6% of population
rural: 57.4% of population
total: 40.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.02% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 400 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 100 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 15.7% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 1.6% (2013)
Education expenditures: 4.6% of GDP (2011)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.4%
male: 98.2%
female: 98.6% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 16.6% male: 14.7%
female: 19.1% (2013 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia
etymology: the name means "Land of the Mongols" in Latin; the Mongolian name Mongol Uls translates as "Mongol State"
Government type: semi-presidential republic
Capital: name: Ulaanbaatar
geographic coordinates: 47 55 N, 106 55 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Saturday in March; ends last Saturday in September

note: Mongolia has two time zones - Ulaanbaatar Time (8 hours in advance of UTC) and Hovd Time (7 hours in advance of UTC)
Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan (Zavkhan), Govi-Altay, Govisumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Independence: 11 July 1921 (from China)
National holiday: Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)
Constitution: several previous; latest adopted 13 January 1992, effective 12 February 1992; amended 1999, 2001; legislation on amendments proposed in 2015 continued into 2016 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system influenced by Soviet and Romano-Germanic legal systems; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ (since 18 June 2009)

head of government: Prime Minister Jargaltulga ERDENEBAT (since 7 July 2016); Deputy Prime Minister Ukhnaa KHURELSUKH (since 25 July 2016)

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president, confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament) elections/appointments: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in the State Great Hural and directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 June 2013 (next to be held in June 2017); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural

election results: Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ reelected president; percent of vote - Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ (DP) 50.2%, Badmaanyambuu BAT-ERDENE (MPP) 42%, Natsag UDVAL (MPRP) 6.5%, other 1.3%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral State Great Hural or Ulsyn Ikh Khural (76 seats; all members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 29 June 2016 (next to be held in June 2020)

election results: MPP 65, DP 9, MPRP 1, independent 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the Chief Justice and 24 judges organized into civil, criminal, and administrative chambers); Constitutional Court or Tsets (consists of a chairman and 8 members) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice and judges appointed by the president upon recommendation to the State Great Hural by the General Council of Courts, a 14-member body of judges and judicial officials; term of appointment is for life; chairman of the Constitutional Court elected from among its members; members appointed by the State Great Hural upon nominations - 3 each by the president, the State Great Hural, and the Supreme Court; term of appointment is 6 years; chairmanship limited to a single renewable 3-year term

subordinate courts: aimag (provincial) and capital city appellate courts; soum, inter-soum, and district courts; Administrative Cases Courts
Political parties and leaders: Civil Will-Green Party or CWGP [Sanjaasuren OYUN, Sambuu DEMBEREL, Tserendorj GANKHUYAG] Democratic Party or DP [Zandaakhuu ENKHBOLD] Mongolian National Democratic Party or MNDP [Mendsaikhan ENKHSAIKHAN] Mongolian People's Party or MPP [Miyegombo ENKHBOLD] Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambar ENKHBAYAR] New Labor Party or XYH [S. GANBAATAR]
Political pressure groups and leaders: other: human rights groups; women's rights groups; disability rights groups
National symbol(s): soyombo emblem; national colors: red, blue, yellow
National anthem: name: "Mongol ulsyn toriin duulal" (National Anthem of Mongolia)
lyrics/music: Tsendiin DAMDINSUREN/Bilegiin DAMDINSUREN and Luvsanjamts MURJORJ

note: music adopted 1950, lyrics adopted 2006; lyrics altered on numerous occasions
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Bulgaa ALTANGEREL (since 8 January 2013)
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jennifer Zimdahl GALT (since 5 October 2015)
embassy: Denver Street
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002; P.O. Box 341, Ulaanbaatar-14192
telephone: [976] 7007-6001
FAX: [976] 7007-6016
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Foreign direct investment in Mongolia's extractive industries – which are based on extensive deposits of copper, gold, coal, molybdenum, fluorspar, uranium, tin, and tungsten - has transformed Mongolia's landlocked economy from its traditional dependence on herding and agriculture. Exports now account for more than half of GDP. Mongolia depends on China for more than 60% of its external trade - China receives some 90% of Mongolia's exports and supplies Mongolia with more than one-third of its imports. Mongolia also relies on Russia for 90% of its energy supplies, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad, particularly in South Korea, are significant. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession, because of political inaction, and natural disasters, as well as strong economic growth, because of market reforms and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. The country opened a fledgling stock exchange in 1991. Mongolia joined the WTO in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes. Growth averaged nearly 9% per year in 2004-08 largely because of high copper prices globally and new gold production. By late 2008, Mongolia was hit by the global financial crisis and Mongolia's real economy contracted 1.3% in 2009. In early 2009, the IMF reached a $236 million Stand-by Arrangement with Mongolia and it emerged from the crisis with a stronger banking sector and better fiscal management. In October 2009, Mongolia passed long-awaited legislation on an investment agreement to develop the Oyu Tolgoi (OT) mine, among the world's largest untapped copper-gold deposits. However, a dispute with foreign investors developing OT called into question the attractiveness of Mongolia as a destination for foreign investment. This caused a severe drop in FDI, and a slowing economy, leading to the dismissal of Prime Minister ALTANKHUYAG in November 2014. The economy had grown more than 10% per year between 2011 and 2013 - largely on the strength of commodity exports and high government spending - before slowing to 7.8% in 2014 and 2.3% in 2015. The current government has made restoring investor trust and reviving the economy its top priority, but has failed to invigorate the economy in the face of the large drop off in foreign direct investment. Mongolia's economy faces near-term economic risks from the government's loose fiscal and monetary policies, from uncertainties in foreign demand for Mongolian exports, and on Mongolia's ability to access financing. The May 2015 agreement with Rio Tinto to restart the OT mine and the subsequent $4.4 billion finance package signing in December 2015 have served to increase investor confidence but are unlikely to overcome the downward economic pressures in the short term.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $36.65 billion (2016 est.) $36.64 billion (2015 est.) $35.79 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $11.16 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0% (2016 est.) 2.4% (2015 est.) 7.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $12,200 (2016 est.) $12,300 (2015 est.) $12,200 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 21.2% of GDP (2016 est.) 21.1% of GDP (2015 est.) 23.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 57.6%
government consumption: 12.1%
investment in fixed capital: 19.9%
investment in inventories: 7.4%
exports of goods and services: 40.1%
imports of goods and services: -37.1% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 57.6%
government consumption: 12.1%
investment in fixed capital: 19.9%
investment in inventories: 7.4%
exports of goods and services: 40.1%
imports of goods and services: -37.1% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Industries: construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing
Industrial production growth rate: 4.9% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 1.164 million (2015 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 28.6%
industry: 21%
services: 50.4% (2014)
Unemployment rate: 8.3% (2015 est.) 4.8% (2014 est.)
Population below poverty line: 21.6% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 28.4% (2008)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 36.5 (2008) 32.8 (2002)
Budget: revenues: $2.868 billion
expenditures: $4.035 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 25.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 72% of GDP (31 September 2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2016 est.) 5.8% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.241 billion (2016 est.) -$567 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $4.319 billion (2016 est.) $4.619 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals, coal, crude oil
Exports - partners: China 84%, Switzerland 9% (2015)
Imports: $3.003 billion (2016 est.) $3.512 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, cigarettes and tobacco, appliances, soap and detergent
Imports - partners: China 39.9%, Russia 28.4%, Japan 6.4%, South Korea 6.2% (2015)
Debt - external: $18.67 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $18.16 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $17.62 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $16.89 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $379.4 million (31 December 2016 est.) $367.4 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $632.6 million (31 December 2015 est.) $766.1 million (31 December 2014 est.) $1.095 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: togrog/tugriks (MNT) per US dollar - 2,011 (2016 est.) 1,970.3 (2015 est.) 1,970.3 (2014 est.) 1,817.9 (2013 est.) 1,357.6 (2012 est.)
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Electricity - production: 5.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 5.6 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 33 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 1.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 1 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 99.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 23,180 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 14,360 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: NA bbl 0 bbl
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 28,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 25,620 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 14 million Mt (2013 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total: 3.068 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 103 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas; a fiber-optic network has been installed that is improving broadband and communication services between major urban centers with multiple companies providing inter-city fiber-

domestic: very low fixed-line teledensity; there are multiple mobile-cellular providers and subscribership is increasing

international: country code - 976; satellite earth stations - 7 (2015)
Broadcast media: following a law passed in 2005, Mongolia's state-run radio and TV provider converted to a public service provider; also available are private radio and TV broadcasters, as well as multi-channel satellite and cable TV providers; more than 100 radio station (2008)
Internet country code: .mn
Internet users: total: 642,000 percent of population: 21.4% (July 2015 est.)
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Airports: 44 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 15
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 29
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Railways: total 1,815 km
broad gauge: 1,815 km 1.520-m gauge

note: national operator Ulannbaator Railway is jointly owned by the Mongolian Government and by the Russian State Railway (2016)
Roadways: total 49,249 km
paved: 4,800 km
unpaved: 44,449 km (2013)
Waterways: 580 km (the only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol) (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers ice free from May to September) (2010)
Merchant marine: total 57

by type: bulk carrier 21, cargo 25, chemical tanker 1, container 2, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 2, roll on/roll off 3, vehicle carrier 1

foreign-owned: 44 (Indonesia 2, Japan 2, North Korea 1, Russia 2, Singapore 3, Ukraine 1, Vietnam 33) (2010)
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Military branches: Mongolian Armed Forces (Mongol ulsyn zevsegt huchin): Mongolian Army, Mongolian Air Force (2016)
Military service age and obligation: 18-27 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; 1-year conscript service obligation in land or air forces or police for males only; after conscription, soldiers can contract into military service for 2 or 4 years; citizens can also voluntarily join the armed forces (2015)
Military expenditures: 0.98% of GDP (2015) 1.12% of GDP (2012) 0.99% of GDP (2011) 1.12% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
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