Malaysia Population: 31,809,660

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 History
During the late 18th and 19th centuries, Great Britain established colonies and protectorates in the area of current Malaysia; these were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. In 1948, the British-ruled territories on the Malay Peninsula except Singapore formed the Federation of Malaya, which became independent in 1957. Malaysia was formed in 1963 when the former British colonies of Singapore, as well as Sabah and Sarawak on the northern coast of Borneo, joined the Federation. The first several years of the country's independence were marred by a communist insurgency, Indonesian confrontation with Malaysia, Philippine claims to Sabah, and Singapore's withdrawal in 1965. During the 22-year term of Prime Minister MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (1981-2003), Malaysia was successful in diversifying its economy from dependence on exports of raw materials to the development of manufacturing, services, and tourism. Prime Minister MAHATHIR and a newly-formed coalition of opposition parties defeated Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Razak in May 2018, ending over 60 years of uninterrupted rule by NAJIB’s party.

 Geography
    Strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea
Location: Southeastern Asia, peninsula bordering Thailand and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia, Brunei, and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam
Geographic coordinates: 2 30 N, 112 30 E
Area: total: 329,847 sq km
land: 328,657 sq km
water: 1,190 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than New Mexico
Land Boundaries: total: 2,742 km border countries (3): Brunei 266 km, Indonesia 1881 km, Thailand 595 km
Coastline: 4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the South China Sea
Climate: tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons
Terrain: coastal plains rising to hills and mountains
Natural resources: tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite
Land use: agricultural land: 23.2% (2011 est.) arable land: 2.9% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 19.4% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 0.9% (2011 est.) forest: 62% (2011 est.)
other: 14.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 3,800 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: flooding; landslides; forest fires
Current Environment Issues: air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires; endangered species; coastal reclamation damaging mangroves and turtle nesting sites
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Malaysian(s)
adjective: Malaysian
Ethnic groups: Bumiputera 62% (Malays and indigenous peoples, including Orang Asli, Dayak, Anak Negeri), Chinese 20.6%, Indian 5.7%, other 0.8%, non-citizens 10.3% (2017 est.)
Languages: Bahasa Malaysia (official), English, Chinese (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai note: Malaysia has 134 living languages - 112 indigenous languages and 22 non-indigenous languages; in East Malaysia, there are several indigenous languages; the most widely spoken are Iban and Kadazan
Religions: Muslim (official) 61.3%, Buddhist 19.8%, Christian 9.2%, Hindu 6.3%, Confucianism, Taoism, other traditional Chinese religions 1.3%, other 0.4%, none 0.8%, unspecified 1% (2010 est.)
Population: 31,809,660 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 27.48% (male 4,498,796 /female 4,243,418)
15-24 years: 16.74% (male 2,704,318 /female 2,621,444)
25-54 years: 40.97% (male 6,587,529 /female 6,444,430)
55-64 years: 8.46% (male 1,364,858 /female 1,325,595)
65 years and over: 6.35% (male 957,841 /female 1,061,431) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 44.6 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 36.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 8.5 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 11.8 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 28.7 years
male: 28.4 years
female: 29 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.34% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 18.8 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 76% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 2.13% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 7.564 million KUALA LUMPUR (capital)
983,000 Johor Bahru
786,000 Ipoh (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 40 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 12.1 deaths/1,000 live births male: 14 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.4 years male: 72.6 years
female: 78.4 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.48 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 52.2% (2014)
Physicians density: 1.51 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density: 1.9 beds/1,000 population (2015)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 93% of population
total: 98.2% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 7% of population
total: 1.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 96.1% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 95.9% of population (2015 est.)
total: 96% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 3.9% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 4.1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.4% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 87,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,400 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 15.6% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 13.7% (2016)
Education expenditures: 4.7% of GDP (2017)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 94.6%
male: 96.2%
female: 93.2% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 13 years male: 13 years female: 14 years (2017)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 10.5% male: 9.8% female: 11.4% (2016 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Malaysia
local long form: none
local short form: Malaysia
former: Federation of Malaya
etymology: the name means "Land of the Malays"
Government type: federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy note: all Peninsular Malaysian states have hereditary rulers (commonly referred to as sultans) except Melaka (Malacca) and Pulau Pinang (Penang); those two states along with Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia have governors appointed by government; powers of state governments are limited by the federal constitution; under terms of federation, Sabah and Sarawak retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., right to maintain their own immigration controls)
Capital: name: Kuala Lumpur; note - nearby Putrajaya is referred to as a federal government administrative center but not the capital; Parliament meets in Kuala Lumpur
geographic coordinates: 3 10 N, 101 42 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the Malay word for "river junction or estuary" is "kuala" and "lumpur" means "mud"; together the words render the meaning of "muddy confluence"
Administrative divisions: 13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu; and 1 federal territory (Wilayah Persekutuan) with 3 components, Kuala Lumpur, Labuan, and Putrajaya
Independence: 31 August 1957 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day (or Merdeka Day), 31 August (1957) (independence of Malaya); Malaysia Day, 16 September (1963) (formation of Malaysia)
Constitution: history: previous 1948; latest drafted 21 February 1957, effective 27 August 1957 amendments: proposed as a "bill" by Parliament; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Parliament membership in the bill’s second and third readings; a number of constitutional sections are excluded from amendment or repeal; amended many times, last in 2010 (2017)
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Court at request of supreme head of the federation
Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: King Sultan ABDULLAH Sultan Ahmad Shah (since 24 January 2019); note - King MUHAMMAD V (formerly known as Tuanku Muhammad Faris Petra) (selected on 14 October 2016; installed on 13 December 2016) resigned on 6 January 2019; the position of the king is primarily ceremonial, but he is the final arbiter on the appointment of the prime minister

head of government: Prime Minister MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since 10 May 2018); Deputy Prime Minister WAN AZIZAH Wan Ismail (since 21 May 2018)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among members of Parliament with the consent of the king elections/appointments: king elected by and from the hereditary rulers of 9 states for a 5-year term; election is on a rotational basis among rulers of the 9 states; election last held on 24 January 2019 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister designated from among members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader who commands support of the majority of members in the House becomes prime minister
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament or Parlimen consists of: Senate or Dewan Negara (70 seats; 44 members appointed by the king and 26 indirectly elected by 13 state legislatures; members serve 3-year terms) House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (222 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections:   Senate - appointed House of Representatives - last held on 9 May 2018 (next to be held no later than May 2023)

election results: Senate - appointed; composition - men 54, women 14, percent of women 20.6% House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - PH 45.6%, BN 33.8%, PAS 16.9%, WARISAN 2.3%, other 1.4%; seats by party/coalition - PH 113, BN 79, PAS 18, WARISAN 8, USA 1, independent 3; composition - men 199, women 23, percent of women 10.4%; note - total Parliament percent of women 12.8% note: as of March 2019, seats by party - PH 129, BN 40, GS 18, GPS 18, WARISAN 9, GBS 3, UPKO 1, PSB 1, independent 3
Judicial branch: highest courts: Federal Court (consists of the chief justice, president of the Court of Appeal, chief justice of the High Court of Malaya, chief judge of the High Court of Sabah and Sarawak, 8 judges, and 1 "additional" judge); note - Malaysia has a dual judicial hierarchy of civil and religious (sharia) courts judge selection and term of office: Federal Court justices appointed by the monarch on advice of the prime minister; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 66 with the possibility of a single 6-month extension

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Sessions Court; Magistrates' Court
Political parties and leaders: National Front (Barisan Nasional) or BN: Malaysian Chinese Association (Persatuan China Malaysia) or MCA [LIOW Tiong Lai] Malaysian Indian Congress (Kongres India Malaysia) or MIC [S. SUBRAMANIAM] United Malays National Organization or UMNO [MOHAMAD Hasan, acting] Coalition of Hope (Pakatan Harapan) or PH (formerly the People's Alliance): Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik) or DAP [TAN Kok Wai] Malaysian United Indigenous Party (Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia) or PPBM [MAHATHIR bin Mohamad] National Trust Party (Parti Amanah Negara) or AMANAH [Mohamad SABU] People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat) or PKR [ANWAR Ibrahim] Other: Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (Parti Islam se Malaysia) or PAS [Abdul HADI Awang] Progressive Democratic Party or PDP [TIONG King Sing] Sabah Heritage Party (Parti Warisan Sabah) or WARISAN [SHAFIE Apdal] Sarawak Parties Alliance (Gabungan Parti Sarawak) or GPS [ABANG JOHARI Openg] (includes PBB, SUPP, PRS, PDP) Sarawak People's Party (Parti Rakyat Sarawak) or PRS [James MASING] Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sarawak) or SUPP [Dr. SIM Kui Hian] United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organization (Pertubuhan Pasko Momogun Kadazan Dusun Bersatu) or UPKO [Wilfred Madius TANGAU] United Sabah Alliance or USA (Gabungan Sabah) United Sabah Party (Parti Bersatu Sabah) or PBS [Maximus ONGKILI] United Sabah People's (Party Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah) or PBRS [Joseph KURUP] United Traditional Bumiputera Party (Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersata) or PBB; note - PBB is listed under GPS above
International organization participation: ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): tiger, hibiscus;
national colors: gold, black
National anthem: name: "Negaraku" (My Country)
lyrics/music: collective, led by Tunku ABDUL RAHMAN/Pierre Jean DE BERANGER

note: adopted 1957; full version only performed in the presence of the king; the tune, which was adopted from a popular French melody titled "La Rosalie," was originally the anthem of Perak, one of Malaysia's 13 states
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador AZMIL Mohd Azbidi (since 8 April 2019)
chancery: 3516 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 572-9700
FAX: [1] (202) 572-9882
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kamala Shirin LAKHDHIR (since 21 February 2017)
embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur
mailing address: US Embassy Kuala Lumpur, APO AP 96535-8152
telephone: [60] (3) 2168-5000
FAX: [60] (3) 2142-2207
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 Economy
Malaysia, an upper middle-income country, has transformed itself since the 1970s from a producer of raw materials into a multi-sector economy. Under current Prime Minister NAJIB, Malaysia is attempting to achieve high-income status by 2020 and to move further up the value-added production chain by attracting investments in high technology, knowledge-based industries and services. NAJIB's Economic Transformation Program is a series of projects and policy measures intended to accelerate the country's economic growth. The government has also taken steps to liberalize some services sub-sectors. Malaysia is vulnerable to a fall in world commodity prices or a general slowdown in global economic activity. The NAJIB administration is continuing efforts to boost domestic demand and reduce the economy's dependence on exports. Domestic demand continues to anchor economic growth, supported mainly by private consumption, which accounts for 53% of GDP. Nevertheless, exports - particularly of electronics, oil and gas, and palm oil - remain a significant driver of the economy. In 2015, gross exports of goods and services were equivalent to 73% of GDP. The oil and gas sector supplied about 22% of government revenue in 2015, down significantly from prior years amid a decline in commodity prices and diversification of government revenues. Malaysia has embarked on a fiscal reform program aimed at achieving a balanced budget by 2020, including rationalization of subsidies and the 2015 introduction of a 6% value added tax. Sustained low commodity prices throughout the period not only strained government finances, but also shrunk Malaysia’s current account surplus and weighed heavily on the Malaysian ringgit, which was among the region’s worst performing currencies during 2013-17. The ringgit hit new lows following the US presidential election amid a broader selloff of emerging market assets. Bank Negara Malaysia (the central bank) maintains adequate foreign exchange reserves; a well-developed regulatory regime has limited Malaysia's exposure to riskier financial instruments, although it remains vulnerable to volatile global capital flows. In order to increase Malaysia’s competitiveness, Prime Minister NAJIB raised possible revisions to the special economic and social preferences accorded to ethnic Malays under the New Economic Policy of 1970, but retreated in 2013 after he encountered significant opposition from Malay nationalists and other vested interests. In September 2013 NAJIB launched the new Bumiputra Economic Empowerment Program, policies that favor and advance the economic condition of ethnic Malays. Malaysia signed the 12-nation Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) free trade agreement in February 2016, although the future of the TPP remains unclear following the US withdrawal from the agreement. Along with nine other ASEAN members, Malaysia established the ASEAN Economic Community in 2015, which aims to advance regional economic integration.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $933.3 billion (2017 est.) $881.3 billion (2016 est.) $845.6 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $312.4 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.9% (2017 est.) 4.2% (2016 est.) 5.1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $29,100 (2017 est.) $27,900 (2016 est.) $27,100 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 28.5% of GDP (2017 est.) 28.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 28.2% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 55.3% (2017 est.) government consumption: 12.2% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 25.3% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0.3% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 71.4% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -64.4% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 8.8% (2017 est.) industry: 37.6% (2017 est.) services: 53.6% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: Peninsular Malaysia - palm oil, rubber, cocoa, rice;Sabah - palm oil, subsistence crops; rubber, timber;Sarawak - palm oil, rubber, timber; pepper
Industries: Peninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, petroleum and natural gas, light manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, medical technology, electronics and semiconductors, timber processing;Sabah - logging, petroleum and natural gas production;Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum and natural gas production, logging
Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 14.94 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 11%
industry: 36%
services: 53% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate: 3.4% (2017 est.) 3.5% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 3.8% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 34.7% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 46.2 (2009) 49.2 (1997)
Budget: revenues: 51.25 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 60.63 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 16.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 54.1% of GDP (2017 est.) 56.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: this figure is based on the amount of federal government debt, RM501.6 billion ($167.2 billion) in 2012; this includes Malaysian Treasury bills and other government securities, as well as loans raised externally and bonds and notes issued overseas; this figure excludes debt issued by non-financial public enterprises and guaranteed by the federal government, which was an additional $47.7 billion in 2012
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.8% (2017 est.) 2.1% (2016 est.) note: approximately 30% of goods are price-controlled
Current account balance: $9.296 billion (2017 est.) $7.236 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $187.9 billion (2017 est.) $165.3 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: semiconductors and electronic equipment, palm oil, petroleum and liquefied natural gas, wood and wood products, palm oil, rubber, textiles, chemicals, solar panels
Exports - partners: Singapore 15.1%, China 12.6%, US 9.4%, Japan 8.2%, Thailand 5.7%, Hong Kong 4.5% (2017)
Imports: $160.7 billion (2017 est.) $141 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: electronics, machinery, petroleum products, plastics, vehicles, iron and steel products, chemicals
Imports - partners: China 19.9%, Singapore 10.8%, US 8.4%, Japan 7.6%, Thailand 5.8%, South Korea 4.5%, Indonesia 4.4% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $102.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $94.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $217.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $195.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $139.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $121.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $128.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $126.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $383 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $459 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $500.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: ringgits (MYR) per US dollar - 4.343 (2017 est.) 4.15 (2016 est.) 4.15 (2015 est.) 3.91 (2014 est.) 3.27 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 148.3 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 136.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 3 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports: 33 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 33 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 78% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 18% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 4% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 647,900 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 326,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 166,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 3.6 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 528,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 704,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 208,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 304,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 69.49 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 30.44 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 38.23 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 2.803 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 1.183 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 226.8 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 42,338,500
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 135 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern system featuring good intercity services mainly by microwave radio relay and an adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; international service excellent; one of the most advanced telecom networks; roll-out of a national broadband network (2018)

domestic: fixed-line 21 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 135 per 100 persons; domestic satellite system with 2 earth stations (2018)

international: country code - 60; landing point for several major international submarine cable networks that provide connectivity to Asia, Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean)
Broadcast media: state-owned TV broadcaster operates 2 TV networks with relays throughout the country, and the leading private commercial media group operates 4 TV stations with numerous relays throughout the country; satellite TV subscription service is available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates multiple national networks, as well as regional and local stations; many private commercial radio broadcasters and some subscription satellite radio services are available; about 55 radio stations overall (2019)
Internet country code: .my
Internet users: total: 24,384,952
percent of population: 78.8% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 114 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 39
(2017) over 3,047 m: 8 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 8 (2017)
under 914 m: 8 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 75
(2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2013)
under 914 m: 69 (2013)
Heliports: 4 (2013)
Pipelines: 354 km condensate, 6439 km gas, 155 km liquid petroleum gas, 1937 km oil, 43 km oil/gas/water, 114 km refined products, 26 km water (2013)
Railways: total 1,851 km
(2014) standard gauge: 59 km 1.435-m gauge (59 km electrified) (2014)
narrow gauge: 1,792 km 1.000-m gauge (339 km electrified) (2014)
Roadways: total 144,403 km
(excludes local roads) (2010) paved: 116,169 km (includes 1,821 km of expressways) (2010)
unpaved: 28,234 km (2010)
Waterways: 7,200 km (Peninsular Malaysia 3,200 km; Sabah 1,500 km; Sarawak 2,500 km) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 1,704

by type: bulk carrier 15, container ship 22, general cargo 182, oil tanker 137, other 1348 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Bintulu, Johor Bahru, George Town (Penang), Port Kelang (Port Klang), Tanjung Pelepas container port(s) (TEUs): Port Kelang (Port Klang) (11,978,000), Tanjung Pelepas (8,260,000) (2017) LNG terminal(s) (export): Bintulu (Sarawak) LNG terminal(s) (import): Sungei Udang
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 Military
Military branches: Malaysian Armed Forces (Angkatan Tentera Malaysia, ATM): Malaysian Army (Tentera Darat Malaysia), Royal Malaysian Navy (Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia, TLDM), Royal Malaysian Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia, TUDM) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 17 years 6 months of age for voluntary military service (younger with parental consent and proof of age); mandatory retirement age 60; women serve in the Malaysian Armed Forces; no conscription (2013)
Military expenditures: 1.11% of GDP (2017) 1.41% of GDP (2016) 1.53% of GDP (2015) 1.46% of GDP (2014) 1.52% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: while the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions over the Spratly Islands, it is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties, which is currently being negotiated between China and ASEAN; Malaysia was not party to the March 2005 joint accord among the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam on conducting marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; disputes continue over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's land reclamation, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, ICJ awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge; land and maritime negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Muslim southern provinces prompts measures to close and monitor border with Malaysia to stem terrorist activities; Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo; per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 114,227 (Burma) (2018)
stateless persons: 9,631 (2018); note - Malaysia's stateless population consists of Rohingya refugees from Burma, ethnic Indians, and the children of Filipino and Indonesian illegal migrants; Burma stripped the Rohingya of their nationality in 1982; Filipino and Indonesian children who have not been registered for birth certificates by their parents or who received birth certificates stamped "foreigner" are not eligible to attend government schools; these children are vulnerable to statelessness should they not be able to apply to their parents' country of origin for passports
Illicit drugs: drug trafficking prosecuted vigorously, including enforcement of the death penalty; heroin still primary drug of abuse, but synthetic drug demand remains strong; continued ecstasy and methamphetamine producer for domestic users and, to a lesser extent, the regional drug market
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