Portugal Population: 10,355,493

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 History
Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil, its wealthiest colony, in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, and for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.

 Geography
    Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar
Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain
Geographic coordinates: 39 30 N, 8 00 W
Area: total: 92,090 sq km
land: 91,470 sq km
water: 620 sq km

note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Virginia
Land Boundaries: total: 1,224 km border countries (1): Spain 1224 km
Coastline: 1,793 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
Terrain: the west-flowing Tagus River divides the country: the north is mountainous toward the interior, while the south is characterized by rolling plains
Natural resources: fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 39.7% (2011 est.) arable land: 11.9% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 7.8% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 20% (2011 est.) forest: 37.8% (2011 est.)
other: 22.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 5,400 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: Azores subject to severe earthquakes volcanism: limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira
Current Environment Issues: soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in urban centers and coastal areas
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification
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 People
Nationality: noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective: Portuguese
Ethnic groups: white homogeneous Mediterranean population; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990, Eastern Europeans have migrated to Portugal
Languages: Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)
Religions: Roman Catholic 81%, other Christian 3.3%, other (includes Jewish, Muslim) 0.6%, none 6.8%, unspecified 8.3% (2011 est.)

note: represents population 15 years of age and older
Population: 10,355,493 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.01% (male 743,277 /female 707,437)
15-24 years: 10.89% (male 580,709 /female 546,908)
25-54 years: 42.04% (male 2,143,735 /female 2,209,736)
55-64 years: 12.8% (male 605,113 /female 720,192)
65 years and over: 20.26% (male 838,606 /female 1,259,780) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 53.4 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 21.6 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 31.8 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 3.1 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 43.7 years
male: 41.8 years
female: 45.6 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.27% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 8.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 10.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 65.2% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.47% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 2.927 million LISBON (capital)
1.307 million Porto (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 30.2 years (2015 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 10 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80.9 years male: 77.7 years
female: 84.2 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.39 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 73.9% (2014)
Physicians density: 3.34 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density: 3.4 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 99.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 99.8% of population (2015 est.)
total: 99.7% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 0.2% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.6% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 40,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <500 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 20.8% (2016)
Education expenditures: 4.9% of GDP (2015)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 95.7%
male: 97.1%
female: 94.4% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years male: 16 years female: 16 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 23.9% male: 22.4% female: 25.5% (2017 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
conventional short form: Portugal
local long form: Republica Portuguesa
local short form: Portugal
etymology: name derives from the Roman designation "Portus Cale" meaning "Port of Cale"; Cale was an ancient Celtic town and port in present-day northern Portugal
Government type: semi-presidential republic
Capital: name: Lisbon
geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: Portugal has two time zones, including the Azores (UTC-1)
etymology: Lisbon is one of Europe's oldest cities (the second oldest capital city after Athens) and the origin of the name is lost in time; it may have been founded as an ancient Celtic settlement that subsequently maintained close commercial relations with the Phoenicians (beginning about 1200 B.C.); the name of the settlement may have been derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River that runs through the city, Lisso or Lucio; the Romans named the city "Olisippo" when they took it from the Carthaginians in 205 B.C.; under the Visigoths the city name became "Ulixbona," under the Arabs it was "al-Ushbuna"; the medieval version of "Lissabona" became today's Lisboa
Administrative divisions: 18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu
Independence: 1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 1 December 1640 (independence reestablished following 60-years of Spanish rule); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)
National holiday: Portugal Day (Dia de Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis DE CAMOES (1524-80) died
Constitution: history: several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1976, effective 25 April 1976 amendments: proposed by the Assembly of the Republic; adoption requires two-thirds majority vote of Assembly members; amended several times, last in 2005 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (since 9 March 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Luis Santos da COSTA (since 24 November 2015)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 January 2016 (next to be held in January 2021); following legislative elections the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results: Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA elected president in the first round; percent of vote - Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (PSD) 52%, Antonio Sampaio da NOVOA (independent) 22.9%, Marisa MATIAS (BE) 10.1%, Maria de BELEM (independent) 4.2%, other 10.8%

note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; 226 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 4 members - 2 each in 2 constituencies representing Portuguese living abroad - directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 4 October 2015 (next to be held on 6 October 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party - Portugal a Frente (PaF) 36.9%, PS 32.3%, B.E. 10.2%, CDU 8.3%, PPD/PSD (Azores and Madeira) 1.5%, PAN 1.4%, other 9.4%; seats by party - PaF 102, PS 86, B.E. 19, CDU 17, PPD/PSD (Azores and Madeira) 5, PAN 1; composition - men 158, women 72, percent of women 31.3%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of 12 justices); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 13 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president and appointed by the Assembly of the Republic; judges can serve for life; Constitutional Court judges - 10 elected by the Assembly and 3 elected by the other Constitutional Court judges; judges elected for 6-year nonrenewable terms

subordinate courts: Supreme Administrative Court (Supremo Tribunal Administrativo); Audit Court (Tribunal de Contas); appellate, district, and municipal courts
Political parties and leaders: Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party (Partido do Centro Democratico Social-Partido Popular) or CDS-PP [Assuncao CRISTAS] Ecologist Party "The Greens" or "Os Verdes" (Partido Ecologista-Os Verdes) or PEV [Heloisa APOLONIA] People-Animals-Nature Party (Pessoas-Animais-Natureza) or PAN [Andre SILVA] Portuguese Communist Party (Partido Comunista Portugues) or PCP [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democrata) or PSD (original name Partido Popular Democratico) or PPD [Rui RIO] Socialist Party (Partido Socialista) or PS [Antonio COSTA] The Left Bloc (Bloco de Esquerda) or BE or O Bloco [Catarina MARTINS] Unitary Democratic Coalition (Coligacao Democratica Unitaria) or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes PCP and PEV)
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): armillary sphere (a spherical astrolabe modeling objects in the sky and representing the Republic);
national colors: red, green
National anthem: name: "A Portugesa" (The Song of the Portuguese)
lyrics/music: Henrique LOPES DE MENDOCA/Alfredo KEIL

note: adopted 1910; "A Portuguesa" was originally written to protest the Portuguese monarchy's acquiescence to the 1890 British ultimatum forcing Portugal to give up areas of Africa; the lyrics refer to the "insult" that resulted from the event
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Domingos Teixeira de Abreu FEZAS VITAL (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 332-3007
FAX: [1] (202) 223-3926
consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, San Francisco consulate(s): New Bedford (MA), Newark (NJ), Providence (RI)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador George E. GLASS (since 25 August 2017)
embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon
mailing address: Apartado 43033, 1601-301 Lisboa; PSC 83, APO AE 09726
telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300
FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109 consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)
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 Economy
Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community - the EU's predecessor - in 1986. Over the following two decades, successive governments privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country joined the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU members. The economy grew by more than the EU average for much of the 1990s, but the rate of growth slowed in 2001-08. After the global financial crisis in 2008, Portugal’s economy contracted in 2009 and fell into recession from 2011 to 2013, as the government implemented spending cuts and tax increases to comply with conditions of an EU-IMF financial rescue package, signed in May 2011. Portugal successfully exited its EU-IMF program in May 2014, and its economic recovery gained traction in 2015 because of strong exports and a rebound in private consumption. GDP growth accelerated in 2016, and probably reached 2.5 % in 2017. Unemployment remained high, at 9.7% in 2017, but has improved steadily since peaking at 18% in 2013. The center-left minority Socialist government has unwound some unpopular austerity measures while managing to remain within most EU fiscal targets. The budget deficit fell from 11.2% of GDP in 2010 to 1.8% in 2017, the country’s lowest since democracy was restored in 1974, and surpassing the EU and IMF projections of 3%. Portugal exited the EU’s excessive deficit procedure in mid-2017.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $314.1 billion (2017 est.) $305.9 billion (2016 est.) $301 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $218 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.7% (2017 est.) 1.6% (2016 est.) 1.8% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $30,500 (2017 est.) $29,600 (2016 est.) $29,100 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 16.8% of GDP (2017 est.) 16.1% of GDP (2016 est.) 15.9% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 65.1% (2017 est.) government consumption: 17.6% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 16.2% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 43.1% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -42.1% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 2.2% (2017 est.) industry: 22.1% (2017 est.) services: 75.7% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, dairy products; fish
Industries: textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper and pulp, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, automobiles and auto parts, base metals, minerals, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; dairy products, wine, other foodstuffs; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism, plastics, financial services, optics
Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 5.233 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 8.6%
industry: 23.9%
services: 67.5% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate: 8.9% (2017 est.) 11.1% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 19% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 25.9% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 33.9 (2015 est.) 34 (2014 est.)
Budget: revenues: 93.55 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 100 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 42.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 125.7% of GDP (2017 est.) 129.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (2017 est.) 0.6% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $993 million (2017 est.) $1.218 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $61 billion (2017 est.) $54.76 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: agricultural products, foodstuffs, wine, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, hides, leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, machinery and tools, base metals
Exports - partners: Spain 25.2%, France 12.5%, Germany 11.3%, UK 6.6%, US 5.2%, Netherlands 4% (2017)
Imports: $74.73 billion (2017 est.) $64.98 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: agricultural products, chemical products, vehicles and other transport material, optical and precision instruments, computer accessories and parts, semiconductors and related devices, oil products, base metals, food products, textile materials
Imports - partners: Spain 32%, Germany 13.7%, France 7.4%, Italy 5.5%, Netherlands 5.4% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $26.11 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $19.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $449 billion (31 March 2016 est.) $447 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $185.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $147.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $103.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $84.73 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $59.84 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $57.77 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $79.18 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.885 (2017 est.) 0.903 (2016 est.) 0.9214 (2015 est.) 0.7525 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 56.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 46.94 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 9.701 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 4.616 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 20.56 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 41% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 25% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 35% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 285,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 323,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 247,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 143,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 78,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 6.258 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 6.541 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 54.97 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 11,764,106
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: Portugal's telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities; FttP by 2020; 3G comprehensive and 4G upgrades; 5G developing; LTE-A trials; DSL moves to fibre services; FttP for over 5 million customers by 2020 providing national coverage; (2018)

domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations; fixed-line 45 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular 109 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 351; a combination of submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, North and East Africa, South Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean),n/aEutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores; new cable to link Portugal with Brazil (2015)
Broadcast media: Radio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP), the publicly owned TV broadcaster, operates 4 domestic channels and external service channels to Africa; overall, roughly 40 domestic TV stations; viewers have widespread access to international broadcasters with more than half of all households connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems; publicly owned radio operates 3 national networks and provides regional and external services; several privately owned national radio stations and some 300 regional and local commercial radio stations
Internet country code: .pt
Internet users: total: 7,629,560
percent of population: 70.4% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 64 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 43
(2017) over 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 15 (2017)
under 914 m: 8 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 21
(2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
under 914 m: 20 (2013)
Pipelines: 1344 km gas, 11 km oil, 188 km refined products (2013)
Railways: total 3,075 km
(2014)
narrow gauge: 108.1 km 1.000-m gauge (2014) broad gauge: 2,439 km 1.668-m gauge (1,633.4 km electrified) (2014) other: 528 km (gauge unspecified) (2014)
Roadways: total 82,900 km
(2008) paved: 71,294 km (includes 2,613 km of expressways) (2008)
unpaved: 11,606 km (2008)
Waterways: 210 km (on Douro River from Porto) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 576

by type: bulk carrier 68, container ship 236, general cargo 84, oil tanker 11, other 177 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines container port(s) (TEUs): Sines (1,669,057) (2017) LNG terminal(s) (import): Sines
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 Military
Military branches: Portuguese Army (Exercito Portuguesa), Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Portuguese Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but conscription possible if insufficient volunteers available; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1993, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; reserve obligation to age 35 (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.36% of GDP (2018) 1.24% of GDP (2017) 1.84% of GDP (2016) 1.79% of GDP (2015) 1.79% of GDP (2014)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 14 (2018)
Illicit drugs: seizing record amounts of Latin American cocaine destined for Europe; a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin
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