Portugal Population: 10,833,816

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 History
Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil, its wealthiest colony, in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.

 Geography
Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar
Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain
Geographic coordinates: 39 30 N, 8 00 W
Area: total: 92,090 sq km
land: 91,470 sq km
water: 620 sq km

note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Indiana
Land Boundaries: total: 1,224 km border countries (1): Spain 1,224 km
Coastline: 1,793 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
Terrain: the west-flowing Tagus River divides the country: the north is mountainous toward the interior, while the south is characterized by rolling plains
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 39.7% arable land 11.9%; permanent crops 7.8%; permanent pasture 20% forest: 37.8%
other: 22.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 5,400 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: Azores subject to severe earthquakes volcanism: limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (elev. 1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira
Current Environment Issues: soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification
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 People
Nationality: noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective: Portuguese
Ethnic groups: homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal
Languages: Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)
Religions: Roman Catholic 81%, other Christian 3.3%, other (includes Jewish, Muslim, other) 0.6%, none 6.8%, unspecified 8.3%

note: represents population 15 years of age and older (2011 est.)
Population: 10,833,816 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.5% (male 874,807/female 804,483)
15-24 years: 11.4% (male 655,234/female 579,669)
25-54 years: 41.88% (male 2,300,872/female 2,236,077)
55-64 years: 12.07% (male 610,886/female 697,287)
65 years and over: 19.15% (male 849,506/female 1,224,995) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 53.5%
youth dependency ratio: 21.6%
elderly dependency ratio: 31.9%
potential support ratio: 3.1% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 41.8 years
male: 39.8 years
female: 44 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.07% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 9.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 11.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 2.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 63.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: LISBON (capital) 2.884 million; Porto 1.299 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 29.5 (2012 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 10 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.3 years male: 76.1 years
female: 82.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.53 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 86.8% (2005/06)
Health expenditures: 9.5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 4.1 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density: 3.4 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 99.8% of population
total: 99.7% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 0.2% of population
total: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 22.1% (2014)
Education expenditures: 5.3% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.7%
male: 97.1%
female: 94.4% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 17 years male: 17 years
female: 17 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 34.8% male: 34.2%
female: 35.4% (2014 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
conventional short form: Portugal
local long form: Republica Portuguesa
local short form: Portugal
etymology: name derives from the Roman designation "Portus Cale" meaning "Port of Cale"; Cale was an ancient Celtic town and port in present-day northern Portugal
Government type: semi-presidential republic
Capital: name: Lisbon
geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu
Independence: 1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)
National holiday: Portugal Day (Dia de Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis de Camoes (1524-80) died
Constitution: history: several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1976, effective 25 April 1976 amendments: proposed by the Assembly of the Republic; adoption requires two-thirds majority vote of Assembly members; amended several times, last in 2005 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (since 9 March 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Luis Santos da COSTA (since 24 November 2015)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 January 2016 (next to be held in January 2021); following legislative elections last held in October 2015, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition was appointed prime minister by the president

election results: Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA elected president; percent of vote - Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (PSD) 52%, Antonio Sampaio da NOVA (independent) 22.9%, Marisa MATISA (BE) 10.1%, Maria de BELEM (independent) 4.2%, other 10.8%

note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; 226 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 4 members - 2 each in 2 constituencies representing Portuguese living abroad - directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 4 October 2015 (next to be held by October 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party - Portugal Ahead Coalition (PAF) 36.9%, PS 32.3%, B.E. 10.2%, CDU 8.2%, PPD/PSD (Azores and Madeira) 1.5%, PAN 1.4%, other 9.5%; seats by party - PAF 102, PS 86, B.E. 19, CDU 17, PPD/PSD (Azores and Madeira) 5, PAN 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of 12 justices); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 13 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president and appointed by the Assembly of the Republic; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges - 10 elected by the Assembly and 3 elected by the other Constitutional Court judges; judges elected for 6-year non-renewable terms

subordinate courts: Supreme Administrative Court (Supremo Tribunal Administrativo); Audit Court (Tribunal de Contas); appellate, district, and municipal courts
Political parties and leaders: Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party or CDS/PP [Assuncao CRISTAS] Ecologist Party (The Greens) or PEV [Jose Luis FERREIRA and Heloisa APOLONIA] Portuguese Communist Party or PCP [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] Portugal Ahead Coalition or PAF (includes PSD and CDS/PP) Social Democratic Party or PPD/PSD [Fernando RUAS] Socialist Party or PS [Antonio COSTA] The Left Bloc or BE [Catarina Soares MARTINS] Unitarian Democratic Coalition or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes Portuguese Communist Party or PCP and Ecologist Party ("The Greens") or PEV)
Political pressure groups and leaders: Armed Forces Officers' Association or AOFA [Colonel Pereira CRACEL] the Desperate Generation (youth movement protesting against low wages, precarious labor conditions, and unemployment) General Workers Union or General Confederation of Portuguese Workers or UGT [Carlos SILVA] Portuguese National Workers' Conference or CGTP [Armenio CARLOS] TugaLeaks (a website that has become a mouthpiece for publicizing diverse protest action) other: the media; labor unions
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): armillary sphere (a spherical astrolabe modeling objects in the sky and representing the Republic); national colors: red, green
National anthem: name: "A Portugesa" (The Song of the Portuguese)
lyrics/music: Henrique LOPES DE MENDOCA/Alfredo KEIL

note: adopted 1910; "A Portuguesa" was originally written to protest the Portuguese monarchy's acquiescence to the 1890 British ultimatum forcing Portugal to give up areas of Africa; the lyrics refer to the "insult" that resulted from the event
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Domingos T?eixeira de Abreu Fezas VITAL (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 328-8610
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726
consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, San Francisco consulate(s): New Bedford (MA), Newark (NJ), Providence (RI)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Robert A. SHERMAN (since 30 May 2014)
embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon
mailing address: Apartado 43033, 1601-301 Lisboa; PSC 83, APO AE 09726
telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300
FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109 consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)
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 Economy
Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community - the EU's predecessor - in 1986. Over the following two decades, successive governments privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country joined the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU members. The economy grew by more than the EU average for much of the 1990s, but the rate of growth slowed in 2001-08. The economy contracted in 2009, and fell again from 2011 to 2014, as the government implemented spending cuts and tax increases to comply with conditions of an EU-IMF financial rescue package, signed in May 2011. A modest recovery began in 2013 and gathered steam in 2014 due to strong export performance and a rebound in private consumption. Although austerity measures were instituted to reduce the large budget deficit, they contributed to record unemployment and a wave of emigration not seen since the 1960s. A continued reduction in private- and public-sector debt could weigh on consumption and investment in 2016, holding back a stronger recovery. The prior center-right government passed legislation aimed at reducing labor market rigidity, and, this, along with sustained fiscal discipline, could make Portugal more attractive to foreign direct investment. Under the center-right government, the budget deficit fell from 11.2% of GDP in 2010 to 3.5% in 2015, reaching the EU-IMF target of 4%, but still above its EU fiscal obligations, under the excessive deficit procedure. EU-IMF financing expired in May 2014. The new center-left Socialist government, however, has signaled that it will unwind spending cuts associated with austerity while remaining within EU fiscal targets.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $297.1 billion (2016 est.) $294.1 billion (2015 est.) $289.9 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $205.9 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1% (2016 est.) 1.5% (2015 est.) 0.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $28,500 (2016 est.) $28,300 (2015 est.) $27,900 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 15% of GDP (2016 est.) 15.7% of GDP (2015 est.) 15.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 66.3%
government consumption: 18.1%
investment in fixed capital: 14.7%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 39.9%
imports of goods and services: -38.9% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 66.3%
government consumption: 18.1%
investment in fixed capital: 14.7%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 39.9%
imports of goods and services: -38.9% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, dairy products; fish
Industries: textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper and pulp, chemicals, lubricants, automobiles and auto parts, base metals, minerals, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; dairy products, wine, other foodstuffs; ship construc
Industrial production growth rate: 0.9% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 5.167 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 8.6%
industry: 23.9%
services: 67.5% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate: 11.3% (2016 est.) 12.4% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 18.7% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 34.2 (2013 est.) 34.2 (2012 est.)
Budget: revenues: $87.26 billion
expenditures: $92.25 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 42.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 126.2% of GDP (2016 est.) 129% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as i
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.8% (2016 est.) 0.5% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: $46 million (2016 est.) $838 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $52.2 billion (2016 est.) $54.33 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: agricultural products, foodstuffs, wine, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, hides, leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, machinery and tools, base metals
Exports - partners: Spain 25%, France 12.1%, Germany 11.8%, UK 6.7%, US 5.2%, Angola 4.2%, Netherlands 4% (2015)
Imports: $61.7 billion (2016 est.) $64.49 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: agricultural products, chemical products, vehicles and other transport material, optical and precision instruments, computer accessories and parts, semiconductors and related devices, oil products, base metals, food products, textile materials
Imports - partners: Spain 32.9%, Germany 12.9%, France 7.4%, Italy 5.4%, Netherlands 5.1% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $19.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $19.62 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Debt - external: $449 billion (31 March 2016 est.) $447 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $138.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $138.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $88.27 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $87.44 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $59.84 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $57.77 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $79.18 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.9214 (2016 est.) 0.885 (2015 est.) 0.7525 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.) 0.78 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 50 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 46 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 6.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 7.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 19 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 42.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 28.2% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 29.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 912.3 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 308,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 320,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 244,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 138,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 60,010 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 4.079 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 4.07 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 50 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 11.715 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 108 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: Portugal's telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities

domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations

international: country code - 351; a combination of submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, North and East Africa, South Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; troposp (2015)
Broadcast media: Radio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP), the publicly owned TV broadcaster, operates 2 domestic channels and external service channels to Africa; overall, roughly 40 domestic TV stations; viewers have widespread access to international broadcasters with more (2008)
Internet country code: .pt
Internet users: total: 7.43 million percent of population: 68.6% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 64 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 43
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 21

914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 20 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 1,344 km; oil 11 km; refined products 188 km (2013)
Railways: total: 3,075.1 km broad gauge: 2,439 km 1.668-m gauge (1,633.4 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 108.1 km 1.000-m gauge other: 528 km (gauge unspecified) (2014)
Roadways: total 82,900 km
paved: 71,294 km (includes 2,613 km of expressways)
unpaved: 11,606 km (2008)
Waterways: 210 km (on Douro River from Porto) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 109

by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 35, carrier 1, chemical tanker 21, container 7, liquefied gas 6, passenger 13, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 9

foreign-owned: 81 (Belgium 8, Colombia 1, Denmark 4, Germany 14, Greece 2, Italy 12, Japan 9, Mexico 1, Norway 2, Spain 18, Sweden 3, Switzerland 3, US 4)

registered in other countries: 15 (Cyprus 2, Malta 3, Panama 10) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines LNG terminal (import): Sines
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 Military
Military branches: Portuguese Army (Exercito Portuguesa), Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Portuguese Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but conscription possible if insufficient volunteers available; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1993, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; reserve obligation to age 35 (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.29% of GDP (2014) 1.2% of GDP (2013) 1.78% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 14 (2015)
Illicit drugs: seizing record amounts of Latin American cocaine destined for Europe; a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin
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