South Sudan Population: 12,530,717

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 History
Egypt attempted to colonize the region of southern Sudan by establishing the province of Equatoria in the 1870s. Islamic Mahdist revolutionaries overran the region in 1885, but in 1898 a British force was able to overthrow the Mahdist regime. An Anglo-Egyptian Sudan was established the following year with Equatoria being the southernmost of its eight provinces. The isolated region was largely left to itself over the following decades, but Christian missionaries converted much of the population and facilitated the spread of English. When Sudan gained its independence in 1956, it was with the understanding that the southerners would be able to participate fully in the political system. When the Arab Khartoum government reneged on its promises, a mutiny began that led to two prolonged periods of conflict (1955-1972 and 1983-2005) in which perhaps 2.5 million people died - mostly civilians - due to starvation and drought. Ongoing peace talks finally resulted in a Comprehensive Peace Agreement, signed in January 2005. As part of this agreement, the south was granted a six-year period of autonomy to be followed by a referendum on final status. The result of this referendum, held in January 2011, was a vote of 98% in favor of secession. Since independence on 9 July 2011, South Sudan has struggled with good governance and nation building and has attempted to control rebel militia groups operating in its territory. Economic conditions have deteriorated since January 2012 when the government decided to shut down oil production following bilateral disagreements with Sudan. In December 2013, conflict between government and opposition forces led to a humanitarian crisis with millions of South Sudanese displaced and food insecure. The warring parties signed a peace agreement in August 2015, which calls for a transitional government of national unity, but its formation has been delayed as of late 2016.

 Geography
The Sudd is a vast swamp in South Sudan, formed by the White Nile, comprising more than 15% of the country's total area; it is one of the world's largest wetlands
Location: East-Central Africa; south of Sudan, north of Uganda and Kenya, west of Ethiopia
Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 30 00 E
Area: total: 644,329 sq km
land: NA
water: NA

Size comparison: more than four times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 6,018 km border countries (6): Central African Republic 1,055 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 714 km, Ethiopia 1,299 km, Kenya 317 km, Sudan 2,158 km, Uganda 475 km note: South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: hot with seasonal rainfall influenced by the annual shift of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone; rainfall heaviest in upland areas of the south and diminishes to the north
Terrain: plains in the north and center rise to southern highlands along the border with Uganda and Kenya; the White Nile, flowing north out of the uplands of Central Africa, is the major geographic feature of the country; The Sudd (a name derived from floating vegetation that hinders navigation) is a large swampy area of more than 100,000 sq km fed by the waters of the White Nile that dominates the center of the country
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: hydropower, fertile agricultural land, gold, diamonds, petroleum, hardwoods, limestone, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver
Irrigated land: 1,000 sq km (2012)
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 People
Nationality: noun: South Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: South Sudanese
Ethnic groups: Dinka 35.8%, Nuer 15.6%, Shilluk, Azande, Bari, Kakwa, Kuku, Murle, Mandari, Didinga, Ndogo, Bviri, Lndi, Anuak, Bongo, Lango, Dungotona, Acholi (2011 est.)
Languages: English (official), Arabic (includes Juba and Sudanese variants), regional languages include Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Zande, Shilluk
Religions: animist, Christian
Population: 12,530,717 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.86% (male 2,866,374/female 2,755,451)
15-24 years: 20.32% (male 1,338,548/female 1,208,109)
25-54 years: 29.4% (male 1,783,091/female 1,901,553)
55-64 years: 3.31% (male 222,760/female 192,274)
65 years and over: 2.1% (male 145,687/female 116,870) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 83.7%
youth dependency ratio: 77.3%
elderly dependency ratio: 6.4%
potential support ratio: 15.7% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 17.1 years
male: 17 years
female: 17.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 3.92% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 36.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 18.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: JUBA (capital) 321,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
Maternal mortality rate: 789 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 64.6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 69.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 59.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.19 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 4% (2010)
Health expenditures: 2.7% of GDP (2014)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 66.7% of population
rural: 56.9% of population
total: 58.7% of population

unimproved:
urban: 33.3% of population
rural: 43.1% of population
total: 41.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 16.4% of population
rural: 4.5% of population
total: 6.7% of population

unimproved:
urban: 83.6% of population
rural: 95.5% of population
total: 93.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.47% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 179,100 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 11,600 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 6.6% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 27.6% (2010)
Education expenditures: 0.8% of GDP (2011)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 27%
male: 40%
female: 16% (2009 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 18.5% male: 20%
female: 17% (2008 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of South Sudan
conventional short form: South Sudan
etymology: self-descriptive name from the country's former position within Sudan prior to independence; the name "Sudan" derives from the Arabic "bilad-as-sudan" meaning "Land of the black [peoples]"
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Juba
geographic coordinates: 04 51 N 31 37 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 10 states; Central Equatoria, Eastern Equatoria, Jonglei, Lakes, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Unity, Upper Nile, Warrap, Western Bahr el Ghazal, Western Equatoria
Independence: 9 July 2011 (from Sudan)
National holiday: Independence Day, 9 July (2011)
Constitution: previous 2005 (preindependence); latest signed 7 July 2011, effective 9 July 2011 (Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011); amended 2013, 2015 (2016)
Legal system:
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Salva KIIR Mayardit (since 9 July 2011); First Vice President Taban Deng GAI (since 26 July 2016); Second Vice President James Wani IGGA (since 26 April 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Salva KIIR Mayardit (since 9 July 2011); First Vice President Taban Deng GAI (since 26 July 2016); Second Vice President James Wani IGGA (since 26 April 2016)

cabinet: National Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by National Legislative Assembly elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11-15 April 2010 (the next election has been postponed from 2015 to 2018 due to instability and violence)

election results: Salva KIIR Mayardit elected president; percent of vote - Salva KIIR Mayardit (SPLM) 93%, Lam AKOL (SPLM-DC) 7%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral National Legislature consists of the Council of States (50 seats; the Council of States, established by presidential decree in August 2011, includes 50 members - 20 former members of the Council of States and 30 appointed representatives ) and the National Legislative Assembly (400 seats; the National Assembly, also established by presidential decree in August 2011, includes 170 members elected in April 2010, 96 members of the former National Assembly, 66 members appointed after independence, and 68 members added as a result of the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan)

elections: National Legislative Assembly - last held 11-15 April 2010 but did not take office until July 2011; because of political instability, current parliamentary term extended until next election on 9 July 2018); Council of States - established and members appointed 1 August 2011

election results: Council of States - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SPLM 20, unknown 30; National Legislative Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SPLM 251, SPLM-DC 6, DCP 4, independent 6, unknown 65
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of South Sudan (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices, 9 other justices and normally organized into panels of 3 justices except when sitting as a Constitutional panel of all 9 justices chaired by the chief justice) judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president upon proposal of the Judicial Service Council, a 9-member judicial and administrative body; justice tenure set by the National Legislature

subordinate courts: national level - Courts of Appeal; High Courts; County Courts; state level - High Courts; County Courts; customary courts; other specialized courts and tribunals
Political parties and leaders: Sudan People's Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva KIIR Mayardit] Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-In Opposition or SPLM-IO [Riek MACHAR Teny Dhurgon] Democratic Change Party or DCP [Lam AKOL]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation: AU, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO
National symbol(s): African fish eagle; national colors: red, green, blue, yellow, black, white
National anthem: name: South Sudan Oyee! (Hooray!)
lyrics/music: collective of 49 poets/Juba University students and teachers

note: adopted 2011; anthem selected in a national contest
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Garang Diing AKUONG (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 1015 31st St., NW, Third Floor, Washington, DC, 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7940
FAX: [1] (202) 293-7941
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Catherine PHEE (since July 2015)
embassy: Kololo Road adjacent to the EU's compound, Juba
telephone: [211] (0) 912-105-188
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 Economy
Following several decades of civil war with Sudan, industry and infrastructure in landlocked South Sudan are severely underdeveloped and poverty is widespread. Subsistence agriculture provides a living for the vast majority of the population. Property rights are insecure and price signals are weak, because markets are not well organized. After independence, South Sudan's central bank issued a new currency, the South Sudanese Pound, allowing a short grace period for turning in the old currency. South Sudan has little infrastructure - approximately 200 kilometers of paved roads. Electricity is produced mostly by costly diesel generators, and indoor plumbing and potable water are scarce. South Sudan depends largely on imports of goods, services, and capital - mainly from Uganda, Kenya and Sudan. Nevertheless, South Sudan does have abundant natural resources. At independence in 2011, South Sudan produced nearly three-fourths of former Sudan's total oil output of nearly a half million barrels per day. The government of South Sudan derives the vast majority of its budget revenues from oil. Oil is exported through two pipelines that run to refineries and shipping facilities at Port Sudan on the Red Sea. The economy of South Sudan will remain linked to Sudan for some time, given the long lead time and great expense required to build another pipeline, should the government decide to do so. In January 2012, South Sudan suspended production of oil because of its dispute with Sudan over transshipment fees. This suspension lasted 15 months and had a devastating impact on GDP, which declined by 48% in 2012. With the resumption of oil flows the economy rebounded strongly during the second half of calendar year 2013. This occurred in spite of the fact that oil production, at an average level of 222,000 barrels per day, was 40% lower compared with 2011, prior to the shutdown. GDP grew by nearly 30% in 2013. However, the outbreak of conflict on 15 December 2013 combined with a further reduction of oil production and exports, meant that GDP growth fell significantly in 2014 and poverty and food insecurity rose. South Sudan holds one of the richest agricultural areas in Africa with fertile soils and abundant water supplies. Currently the region supports 10-20 million head of cattle. South Sudan is currently burdened by considerable debt because of increased military spending and revenue shortfalls due to low oil prices and decreased production. South Sudan has received more than $4 billion in foreign aid since 2005, largely from the UK, the US, Norway, and the Netherlands. Annual inflation peaked at 79.5% in May 2012 but declined rapidly thereafter, to 1.7% in 2014, before jumping back to 52.8% in 2015, following the December 2013 outbreak of violence. The decision in December 2015 by the central bank to abandon a fixed exchange rate and allow the South Sudanese Pound to float has not reduced inflation in the short term. Long-term challenges include diversifying the formal economy, alleviating poverty, maintaining macroeconomic stability, improving tax collection and financial management and improving the business environment.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $20.88 billion (2016 est.) $24.04 billion (2015 est.) $24.08 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $2.628 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -13.1% (2016 est.) -0.2% (2015 est.) 2.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,700 (2016 est.) $2,000 (2015 est.) $2,100 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 13.6% of GDP (2016 est.) 4.4% of GDP (2015 est.) 13.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 34.9%
government consumption: 17.1%
investment in fixed capital: 10.4%
exports of goods and services: 64.9%
imports of goods and services: -27.2% (2011 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 34.9%
government consumption: 17.1%
investment in fixed capital: 10.4%
exports of goods and services: 64.9%
imports of goods and services: -27.2% (2011 est.)
Agriculture - products: sorghum, maize, rice, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, mangoes, papayas, bananas, sweet potatoes, sunflower seeds, cotton, sesame seeds, cassava (manioc, tapioca), beans, peanuts; cattle, sheep
Industries:
Labor force:
Population below poverty line: 50.6% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 46 (2010 est.)
Budget: revenues: $437 million
expenditures: $2.259 billion (FY 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 16.6% of GDP (FY 2013 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 476% (2016 est.) 52.8% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$13 million (2016 est.) -$1.032 billion (2015 est.)
Exports:
Exports - commodities:
Imports:
Imports - commodities:
Exchange rates: South Sudanese pounds (SSP) per US dollar - 0.9214 (2016 est.) 0.885 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.) 0.78 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 881.3 million kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 694.1 million kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 255,200 kW (2012 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 30.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 66.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Crude oil - production: 220,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 98,680 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 3.75 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 11,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 10,280 bbl/day
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 63.71 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 2.016 million Mt (2011 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 2.899 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system:

international: country code - 211
Broadcast media: TV is controlled by the government; several private FM stations are operational in South Sudan; some foreign radio broadcasts are available
Internet country code: .ss
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 Transportation
Airports: 85 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 82

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 35
under 914 m: 34 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Railways: total 248 km


note: a narrow guage, single-track railroad between Babonosa (Sudan) and Wau, the only existing rail system, was repaired in 2010 with $250 million in UN funds (2014)
Roadways: total 7,000 km


note: most of the road network is unpaved and much of it is in disrepair; a 192-km paved road between the capital, Juba, and Nimule on the Ugandan border was constructed with USAID funds in 2012 (2012)
Waterways: see entry for Sudan
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 Military
Military branches: Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA)
Military service age and obligation: 18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service; the Government of South Sudan signed a revised action plan with the UN in March 2012 to demobilize all child soldiers within the SPLA, but recruitment of child soldiers by the SPLA and the opposition increased in 2014; as of the end of 2015, UNICEF estimates that 15,000 to 16,000 child soldiers had been used by the SPLA and rebel forces in the country's civil war since it began in December 2013 (2015)
Military expenditures: 10.32% of GDP (2012) 5.8% of GDP (2011) 10.32% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan; periodic violent skirmishes with South Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; the boundary that separates Kenya and South Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the "Ilemi Triangle," which Kenya has administered since colonial times
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 240,604 (Sudan); 14,477 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2016) IDPs: 1.87 million (alleged coup attempt and ethnic conflict beginning in December 2013; information is lacking on those displaced in earlier years by: fighting in Abyei between the Sudanese Armed Forces and the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) in May 2011; clashes between the SPLA and dissident militia groups in South Sudan; inter-ethnic conflicts over resources and cattle; attacks from the Lord's Resistance Army; floods and drought) (2016)
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