Uganda Population: 34,758,809


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The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences prevented the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. A constitutional referendum in 2005 cancelled a 19-year ban on multi-party politics.

Landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers
Location: East-Central Africa, west of Kenya, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N, 32 00 E
Area: total: 241,038 sq km
land: 197,100 sq km
water: 43,938 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Oregon
Land Boundaries: total: 2,698 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 765 km, Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, South Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast
Terrain: mostly plateau with rim of mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Lake Albert 621 m
highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m
Natural resources: copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold
Land use: arable land: 27.94%
permanent crops: 9.11%
other: 62.95% (2011)
Irrigated land: 144.2 sq km (2010)
Current Environment Issues: draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
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Nationality: noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan
Ethnic groups: Baganda 16.9%, Banyankole 9.5%, Basoga 8.4%, Bakiga 6.9%, Iteso 6.4%, Langi 6.1%, Acholi 4.7%, Bagisu 4.6%, Lugbara 4.2%, Bunyoro 2.7%, other 29.6% (2002 census)
Languages: English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
Religions: Roman Catholic 41.9%, Protestant 42% (Anglican 35.9%, Pentecostal 4.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.5%), Muslim 12.1%, other 3.1%, none 0.9% (2002 census)
Population: 34,758,809 (July 2013 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 48.9% (male 8,467,172/female 8,519,723)
15-24 years: 21.2% (male 3,658,564/female 3,707,462)
25-54 years: 25.5% (male 4,431,852/female 4,432,393)
55-64 years: 2.3% (male 383,364/female 427,512)
65 years and over: 2.1% (male 323,508/female 407,259) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 103.3 %
youth dependency ratio: 98.4 %
elderly dependency ratio: 4.9 %
potential support ratio: 20.3 (2013)
Median age: total: 15.5 years
male: 15.4 years
female: 15.5 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 3.32% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 44.5 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 11.26 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 15.6% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 5.74% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: KAMPALA (capital) 1.535 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 18.9 note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 310 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 62.47 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 72 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 52.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 53.98 years
male: 52.65 years
female: 55.35 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 6.06 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 30% (2011)
Health expenditures: 9% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.12 physicians/1,000 population (2005)
Hospital bed density: 0.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 95% of population
rural: 68% of population
total: 72% of population

urban: 5% of population
rural: 32% of population
total: 28% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 34% of population
rural: 34% of population
total: 34% of population

urban: 66% of population
rural: 66% of population
total: 66% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 6.5% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1.2 million (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 64,000 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 4.3% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 16.4% (2006)
Education expenditures: 3.3% of GDP (2012)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73.2%
male: 82.6%
female: 64.6% (2010 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2009)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 5.4% (2009)
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Kampala
geographic coordinates: 0 19 N, 32 33 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 111 districts and 1 capital city*; Abim, Adjumani, Agago, Alebtong, Amolatar, Amudat, Amuria, Amuru, Apac, Arua, Budaka, Bududa, Bugiri, Buhweju, Buikwe, Bukedea, Bukomansimbi, Bukwa, Bulambuli, Bulisa, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Busia, Butaleja, Butambala, Buvuma, Buyende, Dokolo, Gomba, Gulu, Hoima, Ibanda, Iganga, Isingiro, Jinja, Kaabong, Kabale, Kabarole, Kaberamaido, Kalangala, Kaliro, Kalungu, Kampala*, Kamuli, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kayunga, Kibale, Kiboga, Kibuku, Kiruhura, Kiryandongo, Kisoro, Kitgum, Koboko, Kole, Kotido, Kumi, Kween, Kyankwanzi, Kyegegwa, Kyenjojo, Lamwo, Lira, Luuka, Luwero, Lwengo, Lyantonde, Manafwa, Maracha, Masaka, Masindi, Mayuge, Mbale, Mbarara, Mitoma, Mityana, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Nakaseke, Nakasongola, Namayingo, Namutumba, Napak, Nebbi, Ngora, Ntoroko, Ntungamo, Nwoya, Otuke, Oyam, Pader, Pallisa, Rakai, Rubirizi, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Serere, Sheema, Sironko, Soroti, Tororo, Wakiso, Yumbe, Zombo
Independence: 9 October 1962 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 9 October (1962)
Constitution: 8 October 1995; amended 2005 note: the amendments in 2005 removed presidential term limits and legalized a multiparty political system
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011) note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Prime Minister Amama MBABAZI (since 24 May 2011); note - the prime minister assists the president in the supervision of the cabinet

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected legislators (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 18 February 2011 (next to be held in 2016)

election results: Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI elected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 68.4%, Kizza BESIGYE 26.0%, other 5.6%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (375 seats; 238 members elected by popular vote, 112 women directly elected, 25 nominated by legally established special interest groups [army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5], additional ex-officio members may be nominated by the president; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 18 February 2011 (next to be held in 2016)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NRM 263, FDC 34, DP 12, UPC 10, UPDF 10, CP 1, JEEMA 1, independents 43, vacant 1; note - UPDF is the Uganda People's Defense Force
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Uganda (consists of the chief justice and 5 justices) judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission (a 9-member independent advisory body) and with approval of the National Assembly; justices serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal (also sits as the Constitutional Court); High Court (includes 10 High Court Circuits and 7 High Court Divisions); Chief Magistrate Grade One and Grade Two Courts
Political parties and leaders: Conservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI] Democratic Party or DP [Norbert MAO] Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Muntu MUGISHA] Inter-Party Co-operation or IPC (a coalition of opposition groups) Justice Forum or JEEMA [Asuman BASALIRWA] National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI] Peoples Progressive Party or PPP [Bidandi SSALI] Ugandan People's Congress or UPC [Olara OTUNNU] note: a national referendum in July 2005 opened the way for Uganda's transition to a multi-party political system
Political pressure groups and leaders: Lord's Resistance Army or LRA [Joseph KONY] Parliamentary Advocacy Forum or PAFO National Association of Women Organizations in Uganda or NAWOU [Florence NEKYON] The Ugandan Coalition for Political Accountability to Women or COPAW
National symbol(s): grey crowned crane
National anthem: name: "Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty!"
lyrics/music: George Wilberforce KAKOMOA

note: adopted 1962
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Oliver WONEKHA
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Scott H. DELISI
embassy: 1577 Ggaba Road, Kampala
mailing address: P. O. Box 7007, Kampala
telephone: [256] (414) 259 791 through 93, 95
FAX: [256] (414) 259-794
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Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals, and recently discovered oil. Uganda has never conducted a national minerals survey. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. Since 1990 economic reforms ushered in an era of solid economic growth based on continued investment in infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, lower inflation, better domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs. Uganda has received about $2 billion in multilateral and bilateral debt relief. In 2007 Uganda received $10 million for a Millennium Challenge Account Threshold Program. The global economic downturn hurt Uganda's exports; however, Uganda's GDP growth has largely recovered due to past reforms and sound management of the downturn. Oil revenues and taxes will become a larger source of government funding as oil comes on line in the next few years. Rising food and fuel prices in 2011 led to protests. Instability in South Sudan is a risk for the Ugandan economy because Uganda''s main export partner is Sudan, and Uganda is a key destination for Sudanese refugees. Unreliable power, high energy costs, inadequate transportation infrastructure, and corruption inhibit economic development and investor confidence.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $51.27 billion (2012 est.) $49.98 billion (2011 est.) $46.86 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $21 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.6% (2012 est.) 6.7% (2011 est.) 5.6% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,400 (2012 est.) $1,400 (2011 est.) $1,400 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 14.9% of GDP (2012 est.) 13% of GDP (2011 est.) 12.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 86.3%
government consumption: 8.7%
investment in fixed capital: 24.6%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 21.2%
imports of goods and services: -41% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 86.3%
government consumption: 8.7%
investment in fixed capital: 24.6%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 21.2%
imports of goods and services: -41% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses, cut flowers; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry
Industries: sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production
Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 16.49 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 82%
industry: 5%
services: 13% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 24.5% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 44.3 (2009) 45.7 (2002)
Budget: revenues: $3.102 billion
expenditures: $3.705 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 14.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 27.4% of GDP (2012 est.) 27.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14% (2012 est.) 18.7% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$2.28 billion (2012 est.) -$1.631 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $2.804 billion (2012 est.) $2.519 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold
Exports - partners: Kenya 12.8%, Rwanda 10.7%, UAE 9.9%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 9.7%, Netherlands 5.7%, Germany 5.2%, Italy 4.1% (2012)
Imports: $5.187 billion (2012 est.) $4.997 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals
Imports - partners: Kenya 16.6%, UAE 14.5%, China 12.3%, India 11.3%, South Africa 4.2% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $3.169 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $2.617 billion (31 December 2011 est.) note: excludes gold
Debt - external: $4.514 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $3.858 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $7.727 billion (31 December 2011) $1.788 billion (31 December 2010) $3.745 billion (31 December 2010)
Exchange rates: Ugandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar - 2,505.6 (2012 est.) 2,522.8 (2011 est.) 2,177.6 (2010 est.) 2,030 (2009) 1,658.1 (2008)
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Electricity - production: 2.445 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 132
Electricity - consumption: 2.217 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 75 million kWh (2010)
Electricity - imports: 29 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 529,000 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 37.8% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 59.5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 2.6% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 1 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 16,930 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 23,950 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 2.014 million Mt (2010 est.)
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Telephones in use: 464,800 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 103
Cellular Phones in use: 16.697 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: mobile cellular service is increasing rapidly, but the number of main lines is still deficient; work underway on a national backbone information and communications technology infrastructure; international phone networks and Internet connectivity provided through satellite and VSAT applications

domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed and mobile-cellular systems for short-range traffic; mobile-cellular teledensity about 50 per 100 persons in 2010

international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog links to Kenya and Tanzania (2011)
Broadcast media: public broadcaster, Uganda Broadcasting Corporation (UBC), operates radio and TV networks; Uganda first began licensing privately owned stations in the 1990s; by 2007 there were nearly 150 radio and 35 TV stations, mostly based in and around Kampala; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available in Kampala (2007)
Internet country code: .ug
Internet hosts: 32,683 (2012)
Internet users: 3.2 million (2009)
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Airports: 47 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 93
Airports (paved runways): total 5
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 42
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 26
under 914 m: 7 (2013)
Railways: total 1,244 km

narrow gauge: 1,244 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 70,746 km
paved: 16,272 km
unpaved: 54,474 km (2003)
Waterways: (there are no long navigable stretches of river in Uganda; parts of the Albert Nile that flow out of Lake Albert in the northwestern part of the country are navigable; several lakes including Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga have substantial traffic; Lake Albert is navigable along a 200-km stretch from its northern tip to its southern shores) (2011)
Ports and terminals: Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell
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Military branches: Uganda People's Defense Force (UPDF): Land Forces (includes Marine Unit), Uganda Air Force (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-26 years of age for voluntary military duty; 18-30 years of age for professionals; no conscription; 9-year service obligation; the government has stated that while recruitment under 18 years of age could occur with proper consent, "no person under the apparent age of 18 years shall be enrolled in the armed forces"; Ugandan citizenship and secondary education required (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 7,249,271
females age 16-49: 7,025,439 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 4,313,068
females age 16-49: 4,200,901 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 423,923
female: 420,236 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 1.8% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Uganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces that extend across its borders; Ugandan refugees as well as members of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) seek shelter in southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Garamba National Park; LRA forces have also attacked Kenyan villages across the border
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 127,021 (Democratic Republic of Congo); 14,684 (Rwanda); 11,135 (South Sudan); 10,728 (Burundi); 7,910 (Sudan) (2012); 18,253 (Somalia) (2013) IDPs: 30,000 (displacement in northern Uganda because of fighting between government forces and the Lord's Resistance Army; as of 2011, most of the 1.8 million people displaced to IDP camps at the height of the conflict had returned home or resettled, but many had not found durable solutions) (2011)
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