Canada Population: 35,881,659


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A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867, while retaining ties to the British crown. Canada repatriated its constitution from the UK in 1982, severing a final colonial tie. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the world's longest international border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.

    Second-largest country in world (after Russia) and largest in the Americas; strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km (100 mi) of the US border

  • Canada has more fresh water than any other country and almost 9% of Canadian territory is water; Canada has at least 2 million and possibly over 3 million lakes - that is more than all other countries combined
Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US
Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 95 00 W
Area: total: 9,984,670 sq km
land: 9,093,507 sq km
water: 891,163 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than the US
Land Boundaries: total: 8,893 km border countries (1): US 8893 km (includes 2477 km with Alaska) note: Canada is the world's largest country that borders only one country
Coastline: 202,080 km note: the Canadian Arctic Archipelago - consisting of 36,563 islands, several of them some of the world's largest - contributes to Canada easily having the longest coastline in the world
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west, lowlands in southeast
Natural resources: bauxite, iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, rare earth elements, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 6.8% (2011 est.) arable land: 4.7% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0.5% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 1.6% (2011 est.) forest: 34.1% (2011 est.)
other: 59.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 8,700 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains volcanism: the vast majority of volcanoes in Western Canada's Coast Mountains remain dormant
Current Environment Issues: metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting agricultural and forest productivity; air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation
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Nationality: noun: Canadian(s)
adjective: Canadian
Ethnic groups: Canadian 32.3%, English 18.3%, Scottish 13.9%, French 13.6%, Irish 13.4%, German 9.6%, Chinese 5.1%, Italian 4.6%, North American Indian 4.4%, East Indian 4%, other 51.6% (2016 est.) note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic origin
Languages: English (official) 58.7%, French (official) 22%, Punjabi 1.4%, Italian 1.3%, Spanish 1.3%, German 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, Tagalog 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, other 10.5% (2011 est.)
Religions: Catholic 39% (includes Roman Catholic 38.8%, other Catholic .2%), Protestant 20.3% (includes United Church 6.1%, Anglican 5%, Baptist 1.9%, Lutheran 1.5%, Pentecostal 1.5%, Presbyterian 1.4%, other Protestant 2.9%), Orthodox 1.6%, other Christian 6.3%, Muslim 3.2%, Hindu 1.5%, Sikh 1.4%, Buddhist 1.1%, Jewish 1%, other 0.6%, none 23.9% (2011 est.)
Population: 35,881,659 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.43% (male 2,839,236 /female 2,698,592)
15-24 years: 11.62% (male 2,145,626 /female 2,023,369)
25-54 years: 39.62% (male 7,215,261 /female 7,002,546)
55-64 years: 14.24% (male 2,538,820 /female 2,570,709)
65 years and over: 19.08% (male 3,055,560 /female 3,791,940) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 47.3 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 23.5 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 23.8 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 4.2 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 42.4 years
male: 41.1 years
female: 43.7 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.72% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 10.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 8.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 5.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 81.4% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.97% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 6.082 million Toronto
4.172 million Montreal
2.531 million Vancouver
1.477 million Calgary
1.397 million Edmonton
1.363 million OTTAWA (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 28.1 years (2012 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 7 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births male: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 82 years male: 79.4 years
female: 84.8 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Physicians density: 2.61 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density: 2.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.8% of population

urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 99% of population (2015 est.)
total: 99.8% of population (2015 est.)

urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0.2% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: n/a
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: n/a
HIV/AIDS - deaths: n/a
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 29.4% (2016)
Education expenditures: 5.3% of GDP (2011)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years male: 16 years female: 17 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 11.1% male: 12.5% female: 9.6% (2018 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Canada
etymology: the country name likely derives from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word "kanata" meaning village or settlement
Government type: federal parliamentary democracy (Parliament of Canada) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm; federal and state authorities and responsibilities regulated in constitution
Capital: name: Ottawa
geographic coordinates: 45 25 N, 75 42 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
etymology: the city lies on the south bank of the Ottawa River, from which it derives its name; the river name comes from the Algonquin word "adawe" meaning "to trade" and refers to the indigenous peoples who used the river as a trade highway

note: Canada has six time zones
Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon*
Independence: 1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (recognized by UK per Statute of Westminster)
National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)
Constitution: history: consists of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions dating from 1763; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982 amendments: proposed by either house of Parliament or by the provincial legislative assemblies; there are 5 methods for passage though most require approval by both houses of Parliament, approval of at least two-thirds of the provincial legislative assemblies and assent to and formalization as a proclamation by the governor general in council; the most restrictive method is reserved for amendments affecting fundamental sections of the constitution such as the office of the monarch or the governor general, and the constitutional amendment procedures, which require the unanimous approval by both houses and by all the provincial assemblies, and assent to by the governor general in council; amended 11 times, last in 2011 (Fair Representation Act, 2011) (2018)
Legal system: common law system except in Quebec, where civil law based on the French civil code prevails
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Julie PAYETTE (since 2 October 2017)

head of government: Prime Minister Justin Pierre James TRUDEAU (Liberal Party) (since 4 November 2015)

cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among members of his/her own party sitting in Parliament elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a 5-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the House of Commons generally designated prime minister by the governor general

note: the governor general position is largely ceremonial; Julie PAYETTE, a former space shuttle astronaut, is Canada's fourth female governor general but the first to have flown in space
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of: Senate or Senat (105 seats; members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and can serve until age 75) House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (338 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote with terms up to 4 years)

elections: Senate - appointed; latest appointments in December 2018 House of Commons - last held on 19 October 2015 (next to be held on 21 October 2019)

election results: Senate - composition as of December 2018 - men 51, women 54, percent of women 51.4% House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Liberal Party 39.5%, CPC 31.9%, NDP 19.7%, Bloc Quebecois 4.7%, Greens 3.4%, other 0.8%; seats by party - Liberal Party 184, CPC 99, NDP 44, Bloc Quebecois 10, Greens 1; composition - men 250, women 88, percent of women 26%; note - total Parliament percent of women 32.1% note: seats by party, as of December 2018 - Liberal Party 181, CPC 96, NDP 41, Bloc Quebecois 10, Greens 1, People's Party of Canada 1, independent 4, vacant 4; composition - men 250, women 88, percent of women 26%; note - total Parliament percent of women 26.9%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court of Canada (consists of the chief justice and 8 judges); note - in 1949, Canada abolished all appeals beyond its Supreme Court, which prior to that time, were heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) judge selection and term of office: chief justice and judges appointed by the prime minister in council; all judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 75

subordinate courts: federal level: Federal Court of Appeal; Federal Court; Tax Court; federal administrative tribunals; Courts Martial; provincial/territorial level: provincial superior, appeals, first instance, and specialized courts; note -  in 1999, the Nunavut Court - a circuit court with the power of a provincial superior court, as well as a territorial court - was established to serve isolated settlements
Political parties and leaders: Bloc Quebecois [Mario BEAULIEU] Conservative Party of Canada or CPC [Andrew SCHEER] Green Party [Elizabeth MAY] Liberal Party [Justin TRUDEAU] New Democratic Party or NDP [Jagmeet SINGH] People's Party of Canada [Maxime BERNIER]
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CD, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): maple leaf, beaver;
national colors: red, white
National anthem: name: O Canada
lyrics/music: Adolphe-Basile ROUTHIER [French], Robert Stanley WEIR [English]/Calixa LAVALLEE

note: adopted 1980; originally written in 1880, "O Canada" served as an unofficial anthem many years before its official adoption; the anthem has French and English versions whose lyrics differ; as a Commonwealth realm, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador David Brookes MACNAUGHTON (since 2 March 2016)
chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, San Francisco/Silicon Valley, Seattle trade office(s): Houston, Palo Alto (CA), San Diego; note - there are trade offices in the Consulates General
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kelly CRAFT (since 23 October 2017)
embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8
mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430; P.O. Box 866, Station B, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5T1
telephone: [1] (613) 688-5335
FAX: [1] (613) 688-3082
consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec City, Toronto, Vancouver consulate(s): Winnipeg
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Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Canada has a large oil and natural gas sector with the majority of crude oil production derived from oil sands in the western provinces, especially Alberta. Canada now ranks third in the world in proved oil reserves behind Venezuela and Saudi Arabia and is the world’s seventh-largest oil producer. TThe 1989 Canada-US Free Trade Agreement and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (which includes Mexico) dramatically increased trade and economic integration between the US and Canada. Canada and the US enjoy the world’s most comprehensive bilateral trade and investment relationship, with goods and services trade totaling more than $680 billion in 2017, and two-way investment stocks of more than $800 billion. Over three-fourths of Canada’s merchandise exports are destined for the US each year. Canada is the largest foreign supplier of energy to the US, including oil, natural gas, and electric power, and a top source of US uranium imports. Given its abundant natural resources, highly skilled labor force, and modern capital stock, Canada enjoyed solid economic growth from 1993 through 2007. The global economic crisis of 2007-08 moved the Canadian economy into sharp recession by late 2008, and Ottawa posted its first fiscal deficit in 2009 after 12 years of surplus. Canada's major banks emerged from the financial crisis of 2008-09 among the strongest in the world, owing to the financial sector's tradition of conservative lending practices and strong capitalization. Canada’s economy posted strong growth in 2017 at 3%, but most analysts are projecting Canada’s economic growth will drop back closer to 2% in 2018.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.774 trillion (2017 est.) $1.721 trillion (2016 est.) $1.697 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $1.653 trillion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2017 est.) 1.4% (2016 est.) 1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $48,400 (2017 est.) $47,500 (2016 est.) $47,400 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 20.8% of GDP (2017 est.) 20% of GDP (2016 est.) 20.5% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 57.8% (2017 est.) government consumption: 20.8% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 23% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 30.9% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -33.2% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 1.6% (2017 est.) industry: 28.2% (2017 est.) services: 70.2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; fish; forest products
Industries: transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum, natural gas
Industrial production growth rate: 4.9% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 19.52 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 2%
industry: 13%
services: 6%
industry and services: 76%
manufacturing: 3% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate: 6.3% (2017 est.) 7% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 9.4% (2008 est.)

note: this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off, a calculation that results in higher figures than found in many comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 24.8% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 32.1 (2005) 31.5 (1994)
Budget: revenues: 649.6 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 665.7 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 39.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 89.7% of GDP (2017 est.) 91.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: figures are for gross general government debt, as opposed to net federal debt; gross general government debt includes both intragovernmental debt and the debt of public entities at the sub-national level
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (2017 est.) 1.4% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$48.75 billion (2017 est.) -$49.32 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $423.5 billion (2017 est.) $393.5 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum
Exports - partners: US 76.4%, China 4.3% (2017)
Imports: $442.1 billion (2017 est.) $413.4 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods
Imports - partners: US 51.5%, China 12.6%, Mexico 6.3% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $86.68 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $82.72 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $1.608 trillion (31 March 2016 est.) $1.55 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $1.039 trillion (31 December 2017 est.) $1.004 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $1.371 trillion (31 December 2017 est.) $1.277 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $1.593 trillion (31 December 2015 est.) $2.095 trillion (31 December 2014 est.) $2.114 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Canadian dollars (CAD) per US dollar - 1.308 (2017 est.) 1.3256 (2016 est.) 1.3256 (2015 est.) 1.2788 (2014 est.) 1.0298 (2013 est.)
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Electricity - production: 649.6 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 522.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 73.35 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 2.682 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 143.5 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 23% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 9% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 56% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 12% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 3.977 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 2.818 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 806,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 170.5 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 2.009 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 2.445 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 1.115 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 405,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Natural gas - production: 159.1 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 124.4 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 83.96 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 26.36 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 2.056 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 640.6 million Mt (2017 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 31,458,600
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 88 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology; consumer demand for mobile data services have promted telecos to invest and advance LTE infrastructure, and further investment in 5G; government policy has aided the extension of broadband to rural and regional areas, with the result that services are almost universally accessible (2018)

domestic: comparatively low mobile penetration provides further room for growth; domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations; 41 per 100 fixed-line; 88 per 100 mobile-cellular (2018)

international: country code - 1; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean, and 2 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region)
Broadcast media: 2 public TV broadcasting networks, 1 in English and 1 in French, each with a large number of network affiliates; several private-commercial networks also with multiple network affiliates; overall, about 150 TV stations; multi-channel satellite and cable systems provide access to a wide range of stations including US stations; mix of public and commercial radio broadcasters with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the public radio broadcaster, operating 4 radio networks, Radio Canada International, and radio services to indigenous populations in the north; roughly 1,119 licensed radio stations (2016)
Internet country code: .ca
Internet users: total: 31,770,034
percent of population: 89.8% (July 2016 est.)
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Airports: 1,467 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 523
(2017) over 3,047 m: 21 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 19 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 147 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 257 (2017)
under 914 m: 79 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 944
1,524 to 2,437 m: 75 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 385 (2013)
under 914 m: 484 (2013)
Heliports: 26 (2013)
Pipelines: 110000 km gas and liquid petroleum (2017)
Railways: total 77,932 km
(2014) standard gauge: 77,932 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 1,042,300 km
(2011) paved: 415,600 km (includes 17,000 km of expressways) (2011)
unpaved: 626,700 km (2011)
Waterways: 636 km (Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 657

by type: bulk carrier 17, container ship 1, general cargo 91, oil tanker 17, other 531 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Halifax, Saint John (New Brunswick), Vancouver oil terminal(s): Lower Lakes terminal container port(s) (TEUs): Montreal (1,537,669), Vancouver (3,252,225) (2017) LNG terminal(s) (import): Saint John river and lake port(s): Montreal, Quebec City, Sept-Isles (St. Lawrence) dry bulk cargo port(s): Port-Cartier (iron ore and grain), Fraser River Port (Fraser) Hamilton (Lake Ontario)
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Military branches: Canadian Forces: Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force, Canadian Joint Operations Command (2015)
Military service age and obligation: 17 years of age for voluntary male and female military service (with parental consent); 16 years of age for Reserve and Military College applicants; Canadian citizenship or permanent residence status required; maximum 34 years of age; service obligation 3-9 years (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.29% of GDP (2017) 1.16% of GDP (2016) 1.2% of GDP (2015) 1% of GDP (2014) 1% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Gulf of Maine, including the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; US works closely with Canada to intensify security measures for monitoring and controlling legal and illegal movement of people, transport, and commodities across the international border; sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; commencing the collection of technical evidence for submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of claims for continental shelf beyond 200 nm from its declared baselines in the Arctic, as stipulated in Article 76, paragraph 8, of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 7,356 (Colombia), 7,192 (China), 7,141 (Haiti), 5,483 (Nigeria), 5,607 (Pakistan) (2018); 5,705 (Venezuela) (2019)
stateless persons: 3,790 (2018)
Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market and export to US; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; increasing ecstasy production, some of which is destined for the US; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook

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