Cote D'Ivoire Population: 26,260,582


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Close ties to France following independence in 1960, the development of cocoa production for export, and foreign investment all made Cote d'Ivoire one of the most prosperous of the West African states but did not protect it from political turmoil. In December 1999, a military coup - the first ever in Cote d'Ivoire's history - overthrew the government. Junta leader Robert GUEI attempted to rig the elections held in late 2000 and declared himself the winner. Popular protest forced him to step aside and an election brought Laurent GBAGBO into power. Ivoirian dissidents and disaffected members of the military launched a failed coup attempt in September 2002 that developed into a rebellion and then a civil war. In 2003, a cease-fire resulted in the country being divided with the rebels holding the north, the government the south, and peacekeeping forces a buffer zone between the two. In March 2007, President GBAGBO and former New Forces rebel leader Guillaume SORO signed an agreement in which SORO joined GBAGBO's government as prime minister and the two agreed to reunite the country by dismantling the buffer zone, integrating rebel forces into the national armed forces, and holding elections. Difficulties in preparing electoral registers delayed balloting until 2010. In November 2010, Alassane Dramane OUATTARA won the presidential election over GBAGBO, but GBAGBO refused to hand over power, resulting in a five-month resumption of violent conflict. In April 2011, after widespread fighting, GBAGBO was formally forced from office by armed OUATTARA supporters with the help of UN and French forces. OUATTARA won a second term in 2015 and is focused on rebuilding the country's economy and infrastructure while reforming the security forces. The UN peacekeeping mission departed in June 2017. GBAGBO was in The Hague on trial for crimes against humanity, but was acquitted in January 2019. Côte d’Ivoire is scheduled to hold presidential elections in November 2020.

    Most of the inhabitants live along the sandy coastal region; apart from the capital area, the forested interior is sparsely populated
Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana and Liberia
Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 5 00 W
Area: total: 322,463 sq km
land: 318,003 sq km
water: 4,460 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than New Mexico
Land Boundaries: total: 3,458 km border countries (5): Burkina Faso 545 km, Ghana 720 km, Guinea 816 km, Liberia 778 km, Mali 599 km
Coastline: 515 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate: tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)
Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper, gold, nickel, tantalum, silica sand, clay, cocoa beans, coffee, palm oil, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 64.8% (2011 est.) arable land: 9.1% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 14.2% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 41.5% (2011 est.) forest: 32.7% (2011 est.)
other: 2.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 730 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during the rainy season torrential flooding is possible
Current Environment Issues: deforestation (most of the country's forests - once the largest in West Africa - have been heavily logged); water pollution from sewage, and from industrial, mining, and agricultural effluents
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Ivoirian(s)
adjective: Ivoirian
Ethnic groups: Akan 28.8%, Voltaique or Gur 16.1%, Northern Mande 14.5%, Kru 8.5%, Southern Mande 6.9%, unspecified 0.9%, non-Ivoirian 42.3% (2014 est.)
Languages: French (official), 60 native dialects of which Dioula is the most widely spoken
Religions: Muslim 42.9%, Catholic 17.2%, Evangelical 11.8%, Methodist 1.7%, other Christian 3.2%, animist 3.6%, other religion 0.5%, none 19.1% (2014 est.)

note: the majority of foreign migrant workers are Muslim (72.7%) and Christian (17.7%)
Population: 26,260,582 (July 2018 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 39.59% (male 5,213,630 /female 5,182,872)
15-24 years: 19.91% (male 2,613,772 /female 2,615,680)
25-54 years: 34.25% (male 4,577,394 /female 4,416,408)
55-64 years: 3.47% (male 460,048 /female 451,604)
65 years and over: 2.78% (male 325,510 /female 403,664) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 83.8 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 78.5 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.3 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 18.9 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 19.9 years
male: 20 years
female: 19.8 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.3% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 30.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 50.8% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 3.38% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 4.921 million ABIDJAN (seat of government)
231,000 YAMOUSSOUKRO (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 19.8 years (2011/12 est.) note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Maternal mortality rate: 645 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 62.6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 70.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 54.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 60.1 years male: 58 years
female: 62.4 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.83 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 23.3% (2018)
Physicians density: 0.23 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 93.1% of population
rural: 68.8% of population
total: 81.9% of population

urban: 6.9% of population
rural: 31.2% of population
total: 18.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 32.8% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 10.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 22.5% of population (2015 est.)

urban: 67.2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 89.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 77.5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.8% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 500,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 24,000 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 10.3% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 12.8% (2016)
Education expenditures: 4.4% of GDP (2017)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 43.1%
male: 53.1%
female: 32.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 10 years male: 11 years female: 9 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 3.9% male: 2.8% female: 5.1% (2016 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire
local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
local short form: Cote d'Ivoire
former: Ivory Coast
etymology: name reflects the intense ivory trade that took place in the region from the 15th to 17th centuries note: pronounced coat-div-whar
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Yamoussoukro (legislative capital), Abidjan (administrative capital); note - although Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983, Abidjan remains the administrative capital as well as the officially designated commercial capital; the US, like other countries, maintains its Embassy in Abidjan
geographic coordinates: 6 49 N, 5 16 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: Yamoussoukro is named after Queen Yamoussou, who ruled in the village of N'Gokro in 1929 at the time of French colonization; the village was renamed Yamoussoukro, the suffix "-kro" meaning "town" in the native Baoule language; Abidjan's name supposedly comes from a misunderstanding; tradition states that an old man carrying branches met a European explorer who asked for the name of the nearest village; the man, not understanding and terrified by this unexpected encounter, fled  shouting "min-chan m’bidjan," which in the Ebrie language means: "I return from cutting leaves"; the explorer, thinking that his question had been answered, recorded the name of the locale as Abidjan; a different version has the first colonists asking native women the name of the place and getting a similar response
Administrative divisions: 12 districts and 2 autonomous districts*; Abidjan*, Bas-Sassandra, Comoe, Denguele, Goh-Djiboua, Lacs, Lagunes, Montagnes, Sassandra-Marahoue, Savanes, Vallee du Bandama, Woroba, Yamoussoukro*, Zanzan
Independence: 7 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: Independence Day, 7 August (1960)
Constitution: history: previous 1960, 2000; latest draft completed 24 September 2016, approved by the National Assembly 11 October 2016, approved by referendum 30 October 2016, promulgated 8 November 2016 amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by Parliament; consideration of drafts or proposals requires an absolute majority vote by the parliamentary membership; passage of amendments affecting presidential elections, presidential term of office and vacancies, and amendment procedures requires approval by absolute majority in a referendum; passage of other proposals by the president requires at least four-fifths majority vote by Parliament; constitutional articles on the sovereignty of the state and its republican and secular form of government cannot be amended (2017)
Legal system: civil law system based on the French civil code; judicial review of legislation held in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Alassane Dramane OUATTARA (since 4 December 2010); Vice President Daniel Kablan DUNCAN (since 16 January 2017); note - the 2016 constitution calls for the establishment of the position of vice-president

head of government: Prime Minister Amadou Gon COULIBALY (since 11 January 2017)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single renewable 5-year term ; election last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in 2020); vice president elected on same ballot as president; prime minister appointed by the president; note – because President OUATTARA promulgated the new constitution during his second term, he has claimed that the clock is reset on term limits, allowing him to run for up to two additional terms

election results: Alassane OUATTARA reelected president; percent of vote - Alassane OUATTARA (RDR) 83.7%, Pascal Affi N'GUESSAN (FPI) 9.3%, Konan Bertin KOUADIO (independent) 3.9%, other 3.1%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament consists of: Senate or Senat (99 seats; 66 members indirectly elected by the National Assembly and members of municipal, autonomous districts, and regional councils, and 33 members appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms) National Assembly (255 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: Senate - first ever held on 25 March 2018 (next to be held in 2023) National Assembly - last held on 18 December 2016 (next to be held in 2021)

election results: Senate - percent by party NA; seats by party - RHDP 50, independent 16; composition - men 80, women 19, percent of women 19.2% National Assembly - percent of vote by party - RHDP 50.3%, FPI 5.8%, UDPCI 1%, other 1.4%, independent 38.5%; seats by party - RHDP, 167, UDPCI 6, FPI 3, UPCI 3, independent 76; composition - men 228, women 27, percent of women 10.6%; note - total Parliament percent of women 13%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Judicial, Audit, Constitutional, and Administrative Chambers; consists of the court president, 3 vice-presidents for the Judicial, Audit, and Administrative chambers, and 9 associate justices or magistrates) judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Superior Council of the Magistrature, a 7-member body consisting of the national president (chairman), 3 "bench" judges, and 3 public prosecutors; judges appointed for life

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (organized into civil, criminal, and social chambers); first instance courts; peace courts
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of Cote d'Ivoire or PDCI [Henri Konan BEDIE] Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [former pres. Laurent GBAGBO] Liberty and Democracy for the Republic or LIDER [Mamadou KOULIBALY] Movement of the Future Forces or MFA [Innocent Augustin ANAKY KOBENA] Rally of Houphouetists for Democracy and Peace or RHDP [Alassane OUATTARA] (alliance includes MFA, PDCI, RDR, UDPCI, UPCI) Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Henriette DIABATE] Union for Cote d'Ivoire or UPCI [Gnamien KONAN] Union for Democracy and Peace in Cote d'Ivoire or UDPCI [Albert Toikeusse MABRI]
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UN Security Council (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): elephant;
national colors: orange, white, green
National anthem: name: "L'Abidjanaise" (Song of Abidjan)
lyrics/music: Mathieu EKRA, Joachim BONY, and Pierre Marie COTY/Pierre Marie COTY and Pierre Michel PANGO

note: adopted 1960; although the nation's capital city moved from Abidjan to Yamoussoukro in 1983, the anthem still owes its name to the former capital
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mamadou HAIDARA (since 28 March 2018)
chancery: 2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300
FAX: [1] (202) 462-9444
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Katherine BRUCKER (since 28 August 2017)
embassy: BP730, Abidjan Cidex 01, Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
mailing address: B. P. 1712, Abidjan 01
telephone: [225] 22 49 40 00
FAX: [225] 22 49 43 23
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For the last 5 years Cote d'Ivoire's growth rate has been among the highest in the world. Cote d'Ivoire is heavily dependent on agriculture and related activities, which engage roughly two-thirds of the population. Cote d'Ivoire is the world's largest producer and exporter of cocoa beans and a significant producer and exporter of coffee and palm oil. Consequently, the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for these products and to climatic conditions. Cocoa, oil, and coffee are the country's top export revenue earners, but the country has targeted agricultural processing of cocoa, cashews, mangoes, and other commodities as a high priority. Mining gold and exporting electricity are growing industries outside agriculture. Following the end of more than a decade of civil conflict in 2011, Cote d’Ivoire has experienced a boom in foreign investment and economic growth. In June 2012, the IMF and the World Bank announced $4.4 billion in debt relief for Cote d'Ivoire under the Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $97.16 billion (2017 est.) $90.12 billion (2016 est.) $83.19 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $40.47 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 7.8% (2017 est.) 8.3% (2016 est.) 8.8% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,900 (2017 est.) $3,700 (2016 est.) $3,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 15.9% of GDP (2017 est.) 19.2% of GDP (2016 est.) 19.5% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 61.7% (2017 est.) government consumption: 14.9% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 22.4% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0.3% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 30.8% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -30.1% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 20.1% (2017 est.) industry: 26.6% (2017 est.) services: 53.3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels, corn, rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar, cotton, rubber; timber
Industries: foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining, gold mining, truck and bus assembly, textiles, fertilizer, building materials, electricity
Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 8.747 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 68% (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate: 9.4% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line: 46.3% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 31.8% (2008)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 41.5 (2008) 36.7 (1995)
Budget: revenues: 7.749 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 9.464 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 19.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -4.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 47% of GDP (2017 est.) 47% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.8% (2017 est.) 0.7% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.86 billion (2017 est.) -$414 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $11.74 billion (2017 est.) $11.77 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: cocoa, coffee, timber, petroleum, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, fish
Exports - partners: Netherlands 11.8%, US 7.9%, France 6.4%, Belgium 6.4%, Germany 5.8%, Burkina Faso 4.5%, India 4.4%, Mali 4.2% (2017)
Imports: $9.447 billion (2017 est.) $7.81 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: fuel, capital equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: Nigeria 15%, France 13.4%, China 11.3%, US 4.3% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $6.257 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $4.935 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $13.07 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $11.02 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: n/a
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: n/a
Market value of publicly traded shares: $12.49 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $11.71 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $11.82 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 594.3 (2017 est.) 593.01 (2016 est.) 593.01 (2015 est.) 591.45 (2014 est.) 494.42 (2013 est.)
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Electricity - production: 9.73 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 6.245 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 872 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports: 19 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 1.914 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 60% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 40% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 54,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 26,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 62,350 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 100 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 69,360 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 51,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 31,450 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 7,405 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 2.322 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 2.322 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 28.32 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 11.54 million Mt (2017 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 31,747,233
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 131 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: well-developed by African standards; telecommunications sector privatized in late 1990s and operational fixed-lines have increased since that time with 2 fixed-line providers operating over open-wire lines, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optics; 90% digitalized; Côte d'Ivoire continues to benefit from strong economic growth; the fixed Internet and broadband sectors have remained lagging (2018)

domestic: less than 1 per 100 fixed-line, with multiple mobile-cellular service providers competing in the market, usage has increased sharply to about 131 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 225; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Broadcast media: state-controlled Radiodiffusion Television Ivoirieinne (RTI) is made up of 2 radios (Radio Cote d'Ivoire and Frequence2) and 2 television stations (RTI1 and RTI2), with nationwide coverage, broadcasts mainly in French; after 2011 post-electoral crisis, President OUATTARA's administration reopened RTI Bouake', the broadcaster's office in Cote d'Ivoire's 2nd largest city, where facilities were destroyed during the 2002 rebellion; Cote d'Ivoire is also home to 178 proximity radios, 16 religious radios, 5 commercial radios, and 5 international radios, according to the Haute Autorite' de la Communication Audiovisuelle (HACA); govt now runs radio UNOCIFM, a radio station previously owned by the UN Operation in Cote d'Ivoire; in Dec 2016, the govt announced 4 companies had been granted licenses to operate -Live TV, Optimum Media Cote d'Ivoire, the Audiovisual Company of Cote d'Ivoire (Sedaci), and Sorano-CI, out of the 4 companies only one has started operating (2019)
Internet country code: .ci
Internet users: total: 6,297,676
percent of population: 26.5% (July 2016 est.)
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Airports: 27 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 7
(2017) over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 11 (2013)
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: 101 km condensate, 256 km gas, 118 km oil, 5 km oil/gas/water, 7 km water (2013)
Railways: total 660 km
narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)

note: an additional 622 km of this railroad extends into Burkina Faso
Roadways: total 81,996 km
(2007) paved: 6,502 km (2007)
unpaved: 75,494 km (2007)

note: includes intercity and urban roads; another 20,000 km of dirt roads are in poor condition and 150,000 km of dirt roads are impassable
Waterways: 980 km (navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 15

by type: oil tanker 2, other 13 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Abidjan, San-Pedro oil terminal(s): Espoir Offshore Terminal
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Military branches: Armed Forces of Cote d'Ivoire (Forces Armees de Cote d'Ivoire, FACI): Army (Armee de Terre), Navy (Marine Nationale), CoteAir Force (Force AerienneCote), Special Forces (Forces Speciale) (2019)
Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for compulsory and voluntary male and female military service; conscription is not enforced; voluntary recruitment of former rebels into the new national army is restricted to ages 22-29 (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.39% of GDP (2017) 1.18% of GDP (2016) 1.74% of GDP (2015) 1.48% of GDP (2014) 1.38% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: disputed maritime border between Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 302,000 (post-election conflict in 2010-11, as well as civil war from 2002-04; land disputes; most pronounced in western and southwestern regions) (2018)
stateless persons: 692,000 (2018); note - many Ivoirians lack documentation proving their nationality, which prevent them from accessing education and healthcare; birth on Ivorian soil does not automatically result in citizenship; disputes over citizenship and the associated rights of the large population descended from migrants from neighboring countries is an ongoing source of tension and contributed to the country's 2002 civil war; some observers believe the government's mass naturalizations of thousands of people over the last couple of years is intended to boost its electoral support base; the government in October 2013 acceded to international conventions on statelessness and in August 2013 reformed its nationality law, key steps to clarify the nationality of thousands of residents; since the adoption of the Abidjan Declaration to eradicate statelessness in West Africa in February 2015, 6,400 people have received nationality papers
Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for local consumption; utility as a narcotic transshipment point to Europe reduced by ongoing political instability; while rampant corruption and inadequate supervision leave the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, the lack of a developed financial system limits the country's utility as a major money-laundering center
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