Gibraltar Population: 29,461


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Strategically important, Gibraltar was reluctantly ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967, Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency. The subsequent granting of autonomy in 1969 by the UK led Spain to close the border and sever all communication links. Between 1997 and 2002, the UK and Spain held a series of talks on establishing temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. In response to these talks, the Gibraltar Government called a referendum in late 2002 in which the majority of citizens voted overwhelmingly against any sharing of sovereignty with Spain. Since late 2004, Spain, the UK, and Gibraltar have held tripartite talks with the aim of cooperatively resolving problems that affect the local population, and work continues on cooperation agreements in areas such as taxation and financial services; communications and maritime security; policy, legal and customs services; environmental protection; and education and visa services. A new noncolonial constitution came into force in 2007, and the European Court of First Instance recognized Gibraltar's right to regulate its own tax regime in December 2008. The UK retains responsibility for defense, foreign relations, internal security, and financial stability. Spain and the UK continue to spar over the territory. Throughout 2009, a dispute over Gibraltar's claim to territorial waters extending out three miles gave rise to periodic non-violent maritime confrontations between Spanish and UK naval patrols and in 2013, the British reported a record number of entries by Spanish vessels into waters claimed by Gibraltar following a dispute over Gibraltar's creation of an artificial reef in those waters. Spain renewed its demands for an eventual return of Gibraltar to Spanish control after the UK’s June 2016 vote to leave the EU, but London has dismissed any connection between the vote and its continued sovereignty over Gibraltar. The EU has said that Gibraltar will be ouside the territorial scope of any future UK-EU trade deal and that separate agreements between the EU and UK regarding Gibraltar would require Spain's prior approval.

    Strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

  • one of only two British territories where traffic drives on the right, the other being the island of Diego Garcia in the British Indian Ocean Territory
Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain
Geographic coordinates: 36 08 N, 5 21 W
Area: total: 6.5 sq km
land: 6.5 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: more than 10 times the size of The National Mall in Washington, D.C.
Land Boundaries: total: 1.2 km border countries (1): Spain 1.2 km
Coastline: 12 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 nm
Climate: Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
Terrain: a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar
Natural resources: none
Land use: agricultural land: 0% (2011 est.) arable land: 0% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 0% (2011 est.) forest: 0% (2011 est.)
other: 100% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: n/a
Natural hazards: occasional droughts; no streams or large bodies of water on the peninsula (all potable water comes from desalination)
Current Environment Issues: limited natural freshwater resources: more than 90% of drinking water supplied by desalination, the remainder from stored rainwater; a separate supply of saltwater used for sanitary services
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Nationality: noun: Gibraltarian(s)
adjective: Gibraltar
Ethnic groups: Gibraltarian 79%, other British 13.2%, Spanish 2.1%, Moroccan 1.6%, other EU 2.4%, other 1.6% (2012 est.) note: data represent population by nationality
Languages: English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese
Religions: Roman Catholic 72.1%, Church of England 7.7%, other Christian 3.8%, Muslim 3.6%, Jewish 2.4%, Hindu 2%, other 1.1%, none 7.1%, unspecified 0.1% (2012 est.)
Population: 29,461 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 20.29% (male 3,064 /female 2,915)
15-24 years: 13.76% (male 2,110 /female 1,944)
25-54 years: 40.35% (male 6,094 /female 5,794)
55-64 years: 9.31% (male 1,183 /female 1,560)
65 years and over: 16.28% (male 2,336 /female 2,461) (2018 est.)
Median age: total: 35 years
male: 34.1 years
female: 36 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.21% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 13.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 8.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -3.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 100% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.45% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 35,000 GIBRALTAR (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 5.8 deaths/1,000 live births male: 6.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.7 years male: 76.8 years
female: 82.8 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: n/a
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: n/a
HIV/AIDS - deaths: n/a
Education expenditures: n/a
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Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Gibraltar
etymology: from the Spanish derivation of the Arabic "Jabal Tariq," which means "Mountain of Tariq" and which refers to the Rock of Gibraltar
Government type: parliamentary democracy (Parliament); self-governing overseas territory of the UK
Capital: name: Gibraltar
geographic coordinates: 36 08 N, 5 21 W
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: from the Spanish derivation of the Arabic "Jabal Tariq," which means "Mountain of Tariq" and which refers to the Rock of Gibraltar
Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday: National Day, 10 September (1967); note - day of the national referendum to decide whether to remain with the UK or join Spain
Constitution: history: previous 1969; latest passed by referendum 30 November 2006, entered into effect 14 December 2006, entered into force 2 January 2007 amendments: proposed by Parliament and require prior consent of the British monarch (through the Secretary of State); passage requires at least three-fourths majority vote in Parliament followed by simple majority vote in a referendum; note – only sections 1 through 15 in Chapter 1 (Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms) can be amended by Parliament (2016)
Legal system: the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; and British citizens with six months residence or more
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Lt. Gen. Edward DAVIS (since 19 January 2016)

head of government: Chief Minister Fabian PICARDO (since 9 December 2011)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 17 elected members of Parliament by the governor in consultation with the chief minister elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed chief minister by the governor
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Parliament (18 seats; 17 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by majority vote and 1 appointed by Parliament as speaker; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 26 November 2015 (next to be held not later than December 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party - GSLP-Liberal Alliance 68.4% (GSLP 47.8%, LPG 20.6%), GSD 31.6%; seats by party - GSLP-Liberal Alliance 10 (GSLP 7, LPG 3), GSD 7; composition - men 15, women 2, percent of women 11.8% note: as of November 2018, seats by party - GSLP 7, GSD 6, LPG 3, TG 1
Judicial branch: highest courts: Court of Appeal (consists of at least 3 judges, including the court president); Supreme Court of Gibraltar (consists of the chief justice and 3 judges); note - appeals beyond the Court of Appeal are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and Supreme Court judges appointed by the governor upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission, a 7-member body of judges and appointees of the governor; tenure of the Court of Appeal president based on terms of appointment; Supreme Court chief justice and judges normally appointed until retirement at age 67 but tenure can be extended 3 years

subordinate courts: Court of First Instance; Magistrates' Court; specialized tribunals for issues relating to social security, taxes, and employment
Political parties and leaders: Gibraltar Liberal Party or Liberal Party of Gibraltar or LPG [Joseph GARCIA] Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Keith AZOPARDI] Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Fabian PICARDO] GSLP-Liberal Alliance (includes GSLP and LPG) Together Gibraltar or TG [Marlene HASSAN-NAHON]
International organization participation: ICC (NGOs), Interpol (subbureau), UPU
National symbol(s): Barbary macaque;
national colors: red, white, yellow
National anthem: name: Gibraltar Anthem
lyrics/music: Peter EMBERLEY

note: adopted 1994; serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
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Self-sufficient Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. Tax rates are low to attract foreign investment. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and now contributes about 7% to the local economy, compared with 60% in 1984. In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government spending still have a major impact on the level of employment. The financial sector, tourism (over 11 million visitors in 2012), gaming revenues, shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. The financial sector, tourism, and the shipping sector contribute 30%, 30%, and 25%, respectively, of GDP. Telecommunications, e-commerce, and e-gaming account for the remaining 15%.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $2.044 billion (2014 est.) $1.85 billion (2013 est.) $2 billion (2012 est.)

note: data are in 2014 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $2.044 billion (2014 est.) (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $61,700 (2014 est.) $43,000 (2008 est.) $41,200 (2007 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 0% (2016 est.) industry: 0% (2008 est.) services: 100% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: none
Industries: tourism, banking and finance, ship repairing, tobacco
Industrial production growth rate: n/a
Labor force: 24,420 (2014 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NEGL
industry: 1.8%
services: 98.2% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate: 1% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: n/a
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: n/a
highest 10%: n/a
Budget: revenues: 475.8 million (2008 est.)
expenditures: 452.3 million (2008 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 23.3% (of GDP) (2008 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): 1.1% (of GDP) (2008 est.)
Public debt: 7.5% of GDP (2008 est.) 8.4% of GDP (2006 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2013 est.) 2.2% (2012 est.)
Exports: $202.3 million (2014 est.) $271 million (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities: (principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods (2010 est.)
Exports - partners: Spain 27.1%, Germany 20.4%, Netherlands 10.8%, Poland 8.6%, France 6.6%, Italy 5.7%, Cote dIvoire 4.5% (2017)
Imports: $2.967 billion (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities: fuels, manufactured goods, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: Spain 15.6%, Italy 13.4%, US 13.3%, Netherlands 10.9%, Greece 8.5%, Russia 6.6%, UK 5.8%, Belgium 4.4% (2017)
Debt - external: n/a
Exchange rates: Gibraltar pounds (GIP) per US dollar - 0.885 (2017 est.) 0.903 (2016 est.) 0.9214 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.)
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Electricity - production: 238.8 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 230.8 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 43,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 78,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 74,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 13.34 million Mt (2017 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 41,035
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 140 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities (2018)

domestic: automatic exchange facilities; 67 per 100 fixed-line and 140 per 100 mobile-cellular (2018)

international: country code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Broadcast media: Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) provides TV and radio broadcasting services via 1 TV station and 4 radio stations; British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) operates 1 radio station; broadcasts from Spanish radio and TV stations are accessible
Internet country code: .gi
Internet users: total: 27,699
percent of population: 94.4% (July 2016 est.)
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Airports: 1 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
Roadways: total 29 km
(2007) paved: 29 km (2007)
Merchant marine: total 250

by type: bulk carrier 11, container ship 26, general cargo 81, oil tanker 27, other 105 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Gibraltar
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Defense is the responsibility of the UK; the Royal Gibraltar Regiment replaced the last British regular infantry forces in 1992
Military branches: Royal Gibraltar Regiment
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar even greater autonomy
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