India Population: 1,296,834,042


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The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world's oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. and extended into northwestern India. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Islam spread across the subcontinent over a period of 700 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established the Delhi Sultanate. In the early 16th century, the Emperor BABUR established the Mughal Dynasty, which ruled India for more than three centuries. European explorers began establishing footholds in India during the 16th century. By the 19th century, Great Britain had become the dominant political power on the subcontinent and India was seen as the "Jewel in the Crown" of the British Empire. The British Indian Army played a vital role in both World Wars. Years of nonviolent resistance to British rule, led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU, eventually resulted in Indian independence in 1947. Large-scale communal violence took place before and after the subcontinent partition into two separate states - India and Pakistan. The neighboring countries have fought three wars since independence, the last of which was in 1971 and resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons tests in 1998 emboldened Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. In November 2008, terrorists originating from Pakistan conducted a series of coordinated attacks in Mumbai, India's financial capital. India faces pressing problems such as environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and widespread corruption; however, economic growth following the launch of economic reforms in 1991, a massive youthful population, and a strategic geographic location are contributing to India's emergence as a regional and global power.

    Dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal
Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
Geographic coordinates: 20 00 N, 77 00 E
Area: total: 3,287,263 sq km
land: 2,973,193 sq km
water: 314,070 sq km

Size comparison: slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Land Boundaries: total: 13,888 km border countries (6): Bangladesh 4142 km, Bhutan 659 km, Burma 1468 km, China 2659 km, Nepal 1770 km, Pakistan 3190 km
Coastline: 7,000 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
Terrain: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
Natural resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), antimony, iron ore, lead, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 60.5% (2011 est.) arable land: 52.8% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 4.2% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 3.5% (2011 est.) forest: 23.1% (2011 est.)
other: 16.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 667,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes volcanism: Barren Island (354 m) in the Andaman Sea has been active in recent years
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources; preservation and quality of forests; biodiversity loss
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian
Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
Languages: Hindi 43.6%, Bengali 8%, Marathi 6.9%, Telugu 6.7%, Tamil 5.7%, Gujarati 4.6%, Urdu 4.2%, Kannada 3.6%, Odia 3.1%, Malayalam 2.9%, Punjabi 2.7%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.1%, other 5.6% (2011 est.) note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; there are 22 other officially recognized languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language
Religions: Hindu 79.8%, Muslim 14.2%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.7%, other and unspecified 2% (2011 est.)
Population: 1,296,834,042 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 26.98% (male 185,736,879 /female 164,194,080)
15-24 years: 17.79% (male 122,573,662 /female 108,109,968)
25-54 years: 41.24% (male 276,283,581 /female 258,563,835)
55-64 years: 7.6% (male 49,334,703 /female 49,197,817)
65 years and over: 6.39% (male 39,184,523 /female 43,654,994) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 52.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 43.6 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 8.6 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 11.7 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 28.1 years
male: 27.5 years
female: 28.9 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.14% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 18.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 34% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 2.37% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 28.514 million NEW DELHI (capital)
19.98 million Mumbai
14.681 million Kolkata
11.44 million Bangalore
10.456 million Chennai
9.482 million Hyderabad (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 174 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 37.8 deaths/1,000 live births male: 36.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 39.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.1 years male: 67.8 years
female: 70.5 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 53.5% (2015/16)
Physicians density: 0.78 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density: 0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 97.1% of population
rural: 92.6% of population
total: 94.1% of population

urban: 2.9% of population
rural: 7.4% of population
total: 5.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 62.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 28.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 39.6% of population (2015 est.)

urban: 37.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 71.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 60.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2.1 million (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 69,000 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 3.9% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 36.3% (2015)
Education expenditures: 3.8% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 71.2%
male: 81.3%
female: 60.6% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years male: 12 years female: 13 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 10.1% male: 9.5% female: 12% (2012 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of India
conventional short form: India
local long form: Republic of India/Bharatiya Ganarajya
local short form: India/Bharat
etymology: the English name derives from the Indus River; the Indian name "Bharat" may derive from the "Bharatas" tribe mentioned in the Vedas of the second millennium B.C.; the name is also associated with Emperor Bharata, the legendary conqueror of all of India
Government type: federal parliamentary republic
Capital: name: New Delhi
geographic coordinates: 28 36 N, 77 12 E
time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the city's name is associated with various myths and legends; the original name for the city may have been Dhilli or Dhillika; alternatively, the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words "dehleez" or "dehali" - both terms meaning "threshold" or "gateway" - and indicative of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain; after the British decided to move the capital of their Indian Empire from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911, they created a new governmental district south of the latter designated as New Delhi; the new capital was not formally inaugurated until 1931
Administrative divisions: 29 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal

note: although its status is that of a union territory, the official name of Delhi is National Capital Territory of Delhi
Independence: 15 August 1947 (from the UK)
National holiday: Republic Day, 26 January (1950)
Constitution: history: previous 1935 (preindependence); latest draft completed 4 November 1949, adopted 26 November 1949, effective 26 January 1950 amendments: proposed by either the Council of States or the House of the People; passage requires majority participation of the total membership in each house and at least two-thirds majority of voting members of each house, followed by assent of the president of India; proposed amendments to the constitutional amendment procedures also must be ratified by at least one-half of the India state legislatures before presidential assent; amended many times, last in 2019 (2019)
Legal system: common law system based on the English model; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Ram Nath KOVIND (since 25 July 2017); Vice President M. Venkaiah NAIDU (since 11 August 2017)

head of government: Prime Minister Narendra MODI (since 26 May 2014)

cabinet: Union Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the president elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 17 July 2017 (next to be held in July 2022); vice president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 5 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2022); following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by Lok Sabha members of the majority party

election results: Ram Nath KOVIND elected president; percent of electoral college vote - Ram Nath KOVIND (BJP) 65.7% Meira KUMAR (INC) 34.3%; M. Venkaiah NAIDU elected vice president; electoral college vote - M. Venkaiah NAIDU (BJP) 516, Gopalkrishna GANDHI (independent) 244
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of: Council of States or Rajya Sabha (245 seats; 233 members indirectly elected by state and territorial assemblies by proportional representation vote and 12 members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms) House of the People or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 2 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: Council of States - last held by state and territorial assemblies at various dates in 2018 House of the People - last held April-May 2014 in 9 phases; (next to be held in 7 phases 11 April to 19 May 2019)

election results: Council of States - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 218, women 27, percent of women 11% House of the People - percent of vote by party - BJP 31%, INC 19.3%, AITC 3.8%, SP 3.4%, AIADMK 3.3%, CPI(M) 3.3%, TDP 2.6%, YSRC 2.5%, AAP 2.1%, SAD 1.8%, BJD 1.7%, SS 1.7%, NCP 1.6%, RJD 1.3%, TRS 1.3%, LJP 0.4%, other 15.9%, independent 3%; seats by party - BJP 282, INC 44, AIADMK 37, AITC 34, BJD 20, SS 18, TDP 16, TRS 11, CPI(M) 9, YSRC 9, LJP 6, NCP 6, SP 5, AAP 4, RJD 4, SAD 4, other 33, independent 3; composition - men 483, women 62, percent of women 11.4%; note - total Parliament percent of women 11.3%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 28 judges, including the chief justice) judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president to serve until age 65

subordinate courts: High Courts; District Courts; Labour Court note: in mid-2011, India’s Cabinet approved the "National Mission for Justice Delivery and Legal Reform" to eliminate judicial corruption and reduce the backlog of cases
Political parties and leaders: Aam Aadmi Party or AAP [Arvind KEJRIWAL] All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [Edappadi PALANISWAMY, Occhaathevar PANNEERSELVAM] All India Trinamool Congress or AITC [Mamata BANERJEE] Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI] Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Amit SHAH] Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK] Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI(M) [Sitaram YECHURY] Indian National Congress or INC Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) [Ram Vilas PASWAN] Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR] Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Lalu Prasad YADAV] Samajwadi Party or SP [Akhilesh YADAV] Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Sukhbir Singh BADAL] Shiv Sena or SS [Uddhav THACKERAY] Telegana Rashtra Samithi or TRS [K. Chandrashekar RAO] Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU] YSR Congress or YSRC [Jagan Mohan REDDY] note: India has dozens of national and regional political parties
International organization participation: ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, CERN (observer), CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which depicts four Asiatic lions standing back to back mounted on a circular abacus, is the official emblem; Bengal tiger; lotus flower;
national colors: saffron, white, green
National anthem: name: "Jana-Gana-Mana" (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People)
lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE

note: adopted 1950; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote Bangladesh's national anthem
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Harsh Vardhan SHRINGLA (since 11 January 2019)
chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008;
telephone: [1](202) 939-7000 telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000
FAX: [1] (202) 265-4351
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth I. JUSTER (since 23 November 2017)
embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [91] (11) 2419-8000
FAX: [91] (11) 2419-0017
consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Hyderabad, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
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India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Slightly less than half of the workforce is in agriculture, but services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for nearly two-thirds of India's output but employing less than one-third of its labor force. India has capitalized on its large educated English-speaking population to become a major exporter of information technology services, business outsourcing services, and software workers. Nevertheless, per capita income remains below the world average. India is developing into an open-market economy, yet traces of its past autarkic policies remain. Economic liberalization measures, including industrial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and reduced controls on foreign trade and investment, began in the early 1990s and served to accelerate the country's growth, which averaged nearly 7% per year from 1997 to 2017. India's economic growth slowed in 2011 because of a decline in investment caused by high interest rates, rising inflation, and investor pessimism about the government's commitment to further economic reforms and about slow world growth. Investors’ perceptions of India improved in early 2014, due to a reduction of the current account deficit and expectations of post-election economic reform, resulting in a surge of inbound capital flows and stabilization of the rupee. Growth rebounded in 2014 through 2016. Despite a high growth rate compared to the rest of the world, India’s government-owned banks faced mounting bad debt, resulting in low credit growth. Rising macroeconomic imbalances in India and improving economic conditions in Western countries led investors to shift capital away from India, prompting a sharp depreciation of the rupee through 2016. The economy slowed again in 2017, due to shocks of "demonetizaton" in 2016 and introduction of GST in 2017. Since the election, the government has passed an important goods and services tax bill and raised foreign direct investment caps in some sectors, but most economic reforms have focused on administrative and governance changes, largely because the ruling party remains a minority in India’s upper house of Parliament, which must approve most bills. India has a young population and corresponding low dependency ratio, healthy savings and investment rates, and is increasing integration into the global economy. However, long-term challenges remain significant, including: India's discrimination against women and girls, an inefficient power generation and distribution system, ineffective enforcement of intellectual property rights, decades-long civil litigation dockets, inadequate transport and agricultural infrastructure, limited non-agricultural employment opportunities, high spending and poorly targeted subsidies, inadequate availability of quality basic and higher education, and accommodating rural-to-urban migration.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $9.474 trillion (2017 est.) $8.88 trillion (2016 est.) $8.291 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $2.602 trillion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.7% (2017 est.) 7.1% (2016 est.) 8.2% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $7,200 (2017 est.) $6,800 (2016 est.) $6,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 28.8% of GDP (2017 est.) 29.7% of GDP (2016 est.) 30.7% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 59.1% (2017 est.) government consumption: 11.5% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 28.5% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 3.9% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 19.1% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -22% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 15.4% (2016 est.) industry: 23% (2016 est.) services: 61.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, lentils, onions, potatoes; dairy products, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
Industries: textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate: 5.5% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 521.9 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 47%
industry: 22%
services: 31% (FY 2014 est.)
Unemployment rate: 8.5% (2017 est.) 8.5% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 21.9% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 29.8% (2011)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 35.2 (2011) 37.8 (1997)
Budget: revenues: 238.2 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 329 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 9.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -3.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 71.2% of GDP (2017 est.) 69.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.6% (2017 est.) 4.5% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$48.66 billion (2017 est.) -$14.35 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $304.1 billion (2017 est.) $268.6 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum products, precious stones, vehicles, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, cereals, apparel
Exports - partners: US 15.6%, UAE 10.2%, Hong Kong 4.9%, China 4.3% (2017)
Imports: $452.2 billion (2017 est.) $376.1 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: crude oil, precious stones, machinery, chemicals, fertilizer, plastics, iron and steel
Imports - partners: China 16.3%, US 5.5%, UAE 5.2%, Saudi Arabia 4.8%, Switzerland 4.7% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $409.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $359.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $501.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $456.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $377.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $318.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $155.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $144.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $1.516 trillion (31 December 2015 est.) $1.558 trillion (31 December 2014 est.) $1.139 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Indian rupees (INR) per US dollar - 65.17 (2017 est.) 67.195 (2016 est.) 67.195 (2015 est.) 64.152 (2014 est.) 61.03 (2013 est.)
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Electricity - production: 1.386 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 1.137 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 5.15 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports: 5.617 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 367.8 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 71% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 12% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 16% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 733,900 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 4.057 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 4.495 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 4.897 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 4.521 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 1.305 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 653,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 31.54 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 55.43 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 76.45 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 23.96 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 1.29 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 2.383 billion Mt (2017 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 1,168,902,277
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 91 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: supported by deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies, India has emerged as one of the fastest-growing telecom markets in the world; implementation of 4G/LTE services shift to data services across the country; steps taken towards 5G services; fixed broadband penetration is expected to grow at a moderate rate over the next five years to 2023 (2018)

domestic: fixed-line subscriptions stands at 2 per 100 and mobile-cellular at 91 per 100; mobile cellular service introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles, each with multiple private service providers and one or more state-owned service providers; in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), with 6 satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT) (2018)

international: country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems, including SEA-ME-WE-3 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), SEA-ME-WE-4 with a landing site at Chennai, Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with a landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), South Africa - Far East (SAFE) with a landing site at Cochin, the i2i cable network linking to Singapore with landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapore and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase in the bandwidth available for both voice and data traffic; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); 9 gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam (2017)
Broadcast media: Doordarshan, India's public TV network, has a monopoly on terrestrial broadcasting and operates about 20 national, regional, and local services; a large and increasing number of privately owned TV stations are distributed by cable and satellite service providers; in 2015, more than 230 million homes had access to cable and satellite TV offering more than 700 TV channels; government controls AM radio with All India Radio operating domestic and external networks; news broadcasts via radio are limited to the All India Radio Network; since 2000, privately owned FM stations have been permitted and their numbers have increased rapidly
Internet country code: .in
Internet users: total: 374,328,160
percent of population: 29.5% (July 2016 est.)
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Airports: 346 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 253
(2017) over 3,047 m: 22 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 59 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 76 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 82 (2017)
under 914 m: 14 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 93
(2013) over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 38 (2013)
under 914 m: 45 (2013)
Heliports: 45 (2013)
Pipelines: 9 km condensate/gas, 13581 km gas, 2054 km liquid petroleum gas, 8943 km oil, 20 km oil/gas/water, 11069 km refined products (2013)
Railways: total 68,525 km
narrow gauge: 9,499 km 1.000-m gauge (2014) broad gauge: 58,404 km 1.676-m gauge (23,654 electrified) (2014) 622 0.762-m gauge
Roadways: total 4,699,024 km

note: includes 96,214 km of national highways and expressways, 147,800 km of state highways, and 4,455,010 km of other roads
Waterways: 14,500 km (5,200 km on major rivers and 485 km on canals suitable for mechanized vessels) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 1,719

by type: bulk carrier 75, container ship 22, general cargo 582, oil tanker 133, other 907 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Chennai, Jawaharal Nehru Port, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Sikka, Vishakhapatnam container port(s) (TEUs): Chennai (1,549,457), Jawaharal Nehru Port (4,833,397), Mundra (4,240,260) (2017) LNG terminal(s) (import): Dabhol, Dahej, Hazira
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Military branches: Army, Navy (includes naval air arm), Air Force, Coast Guard (2011)
Military service age and obligation: 16-18 years of age for voluntary military service (Army 17 1/2, Air Force 17, Navy 16 1/2); no conscription; women may join as officers, currently serve in combat roles as pilots, and will soon be allowed in all combat roles (2016)
Military expenditures: 2.47% of GDP (2016) 2.41% of GDP (2015) 2.5% of GDP (2014) 2.47% of GDP (2013) 2.54% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: since China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue; Kashmir remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India and Pakistan resumed bilateral dialogue in February 2011 after a two-year hiatus, have maintained the 2003 cease-fire in Kashmir, and continue to have disputes over water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State; Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented; Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 108,008 (Tibet/China), 60,802 (Sri Lanka), 18,813 (Burma), 6,984 (Afghanistan) (2018) IDPs: 479,000 (armed conflict and intercommunal violence) (2018)
Illicit drugs: world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries and throughout Southwest Asia; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system; licit ketamine and precursor production
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook

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