Jordan Population: 10,458,413


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Following World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the League of Nations awarded Britain the mandate to govern much of the Middle East. Britain demarcated a semi-autonomous region of Transjordan from Palestine in the early 1920s. The area gained its independence in 1946 and thereafter became The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The country's long-time ruler, King HUSSEIN (1953-99), successfully navigated competing pressures from the major powers (US, USSR, and UK), various Arab states, Israel, and a large internal Palestinian population. Jordan lost the West Bank to Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War. King HUSSEIN in 1988 permanently relinquished Jordanian claims to the West Bank; in 1994 he signed a peace treaty with Israel. King ABDALLAH II, King HUSSEIN's eldest son, assumed the throne following his father's death in 1999. He has implemented modest political reforms, including the passage of a new electoral law in early 2016 and an effort to devolve some authority to governorate- and municipal-level councils following subnational elections in 2017. In 2016, the Islamic Action Front, which is the political arm of the Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood, returned to the National Assembly with 15 seats after boycotting the previous two elections in 2010 and 2013.

    Strategic location at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and as the Arab country that shares the longest border with Israel and the occupied West Bank; the Dead Sea, the lowest point in Asia and the second saltiest body of water in the world (after Lac Assal in Djibouti), lies on Jordan's western border with Israel and the West Bank; Jordan is almost landlocked but does have a 26 km southwestern coastline with a single port, Al 'Aqabah (Aqaba)
Location: Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia, between Israel (to the west) and Iraq
Geographic coordinates: 31 00 N, 36 00 E
Area: total: 89,342 sq km
land: 88,802 sq km
water: 540 sq km

Size comparison: about three-quarters the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Indiana
Land Boundaries: total: 1,744 km border countries (5): Iraq 179 km, Israel 307 km, Saudi Arabia 731 km, Syria 379 km, West Bank 148 km
Coastline: 26 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 nm
Climate: mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)
Terrain: mostly arid desert plateau; a great north-south geological rift along the west of the country is the dominant topographical feature and includes the Jordan River Valley, the Dead Sea, and the Jordanian Highlands
Natural resources: phosphates, potash, shale oil
Land use: agricultural land: 11.4% (2011 est.) arable land: 2% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 1% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 8.4% (2011 est.) forest: 1.1% (2011 est.)
other: 87.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 964 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: droughts; periodic earthquakes; flash floods
Current Environment Issues: limited natural freshwater resources; declining water table; salinity; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; biodiversity and ecosystem damage/loss
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Jordanian(s)
adjective: Jordanian
Ethnic groups: Jordanian 69.3%, Syrian 13.3%, Palestinian 6.7%, Egyptian 6.7%, Iraqi 1.4%, other 2.6% (includes Armenian, Circassian) (2015 est.) note: data represent population by self-identified nationality
Languages: Arabic (official), English (widely understood among upper and middle classes)
Religions: Muslim 97.2% (official; predominantly Sunni), Christian 2.2% (majority Greek Orthodox, but some Greek and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant denominations), Buddhist 0.4%, Hindu 0.1%, Jewish <0.1, folk <0.1, unaffiliated <0.1, other <0.1 (2010 est.)
Population: 10,458,413 (July 2018 est.) note: increased estimate reflects revised assumptions about the net migration rate due to the increased flow of Syrian refugees
Age structure: 0-14 years: 34.14% (male 1,835,094 /female 1,735,773)
15-24 years: 19.98% (male 1,114,783 /female 975,086)
25-54 years: 37.72% (male 2,137,424 /female 1,807,573)
55-64 years: 4.64% (male 253,029 /female 232,652)
65 years and over: 3.51% (male 180,652 /female 186,347) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 66.1 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 59.8 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 6.2 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 16 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 22.8 years
male: 23.2 years
female: 22.3 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.02% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 23.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 3.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 91% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 2.43% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 2.065 million AMMAN (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.18 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female
total population: 1.12 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 24.8 years (2017/18 est.) note: median age at first birth among women 30-34
Maternal mortality rate: 58 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 13.7 deaths/1,000 live births male: 14.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75 years male: 73.6 years
female: 76.6 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.14 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 51.8% (2017/18)
Physicians density: 2.34 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density: 1.4 beds/1,000 population (2015)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 97.8% of population
rural: 92.3% of population
total: 96.9% of population

urban: 2.2% of population
rural: 7.7% of population
total: 3.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 98.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 98.9% of population (2015 est.)
total: 98.6% of population (2015 est.)

urban: 1.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 1.1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 1.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: <.1% (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: <500 (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <100 (2016 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 35.5% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 3% (2012)
Education expenditures: 3.6% of GDP (2017)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 95.4%
male: 97.7%
female: 92.9% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 13 years male: 12 years female: 13 years (2012)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 35.6% male: 31.5% female: 57% (2016 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
conventional short form: Jordan
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah
local short form: Al Urdun
former: Transjordan
etymology: named for the Jordan River, which makes up part of Jordan's northwest border
Government type: parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Amman
geographic coordinates: 31 57 N, 35 56 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in March; ends last Friday in October
etymology: in the 13th century B.C., the Ammonites named their main city "Rabbath Ammon"; "rabbath" designated "capital" so the name meant "The Capital of [the] Ammon[ites]"; over time, the "Rabbath" came to be dropped and the city became known simply as "Ammon" and then "Amman"
Administrative divisions: 12 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); 'Ajlun, Al 'Aqabah, Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, Al ‘Asimah (Amman), At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Jarash, Ma'an, Madaba
Independence: 25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
National holiday: Independence Day, 25 May (1946)
Constitution: history: previous 1928 (preindependence); latest initially adopted 28 November 1947, revised and ratified 1 January 1952 amendments: constitutional amendments require at least a two-thirds majority vote of both the Senate and the House and ratification by the king; no amendment of the constitution affecting the rights of the king and the succession to the throne is permitted during the regency period; amended several times, last in 2016 (2016)
Legal system: mixed system developed from codes instituted by the Ottoman Empire (based on French law), British common law, and Islamic law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 February 1999); Crown Prince HUSSEIN (born 28 June 1994), eldest son of King ABDALLAH II

head of government: Prime Minister Omar al-RAZZAZ (since 4 June 2018)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the monarch elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch: description: bicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-'Umma consists of: Senate or the House of Notables or Majlis al-Ayan (65 seats; members appointed by the monarch to serve 4-year terms) Chamber of Deputies or House of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwaab (130 seats; 115 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by open-list proportional representation vote and 15 seats for women; 12 of the 115 seats reserved for Christian, Chechen, and Circassian candidates; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: Chamber of Deputies - last held on 20 September 2016 (next to be held in 2020)

election results: Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
Judicial branch: highest courts: Court of Cassation or Supreme Court (consists of 15 members, including the chief justice; Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the king; other judges nominated by the Judicial Council, an 11-member judicial policy-making body consisting of high-level judicial officials and judges, and approved by the king; judge tenure generally not limited; Constitutional Court members appointed by the king for 6-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Great Felonies Court; religious courts; military courts; juvenile courts; Land Settlement Courts; Income Tax Court; Higher Administrative Court; Customs Court; special courts including the State Security Court
Political parties and leaders: Ahrar al-Urdun (Free People of Jordan) Party [Samir al-ZU'BI] Al-Awn al-Watani (National Aid) Party [Faysal al-AWAR] Al-Balad al-Amin Party [Khalil al-SAYED] Al-Itijah al-Watani (National Trend Party) [Ahmad al-KAYED] Al-Mustaqbal (Future) Party [Salah al-QUDAH] Al-Nida’ Party [Abd-al-Majid ABU-KHALID] Al-Rayah Party (Flag Party) [Bilal DHEISAT] Al-Shahama Party [Mashhour ZREIQAT] Al-Shura Party [Firas al-ABBADI] Arab Socialist Ba’th Party [Zyad AL-HOMSI] Conservatives Party [Hasan RASHID] Democratic Popular Unity Party [Sa’eed DHIYAB] Democratic Sha’b Party (HASHD) [Abla ABU-OLBEH] Freedom and Equality Party [Hamad Abu ZEID] Islamic Action Front [Murad AL-ADAYLAH] Islamic Centrist Party [Madallah AL-TARAWNEH] Jordanian Al-Ansar Party [Awni al-RJOUB] Jordanian Al-Hayah Party [Abd-al-Fattah al-KILANI] Jordanian Communist Party [Faraj ITMIZYEH] Jordanian Democratic Socialist Party [Jamil al-NIMRI] Jordanian Democratic Tabiy’ah (Nature) Party [Ali ASFOUR] Jordanian Equality Party [Zuhair al-SHURAFA] Jordanian Fursan (Cavaliers Party) [Ali al-DHWEIB] Jordanian Justice and Development Party [Ali al-SHURAFA] Jordanian National Action Party [Abd-al-Hadi al-MAHARMAH] Jordanian National Constitutional Party [Ahmad al-SHUNNAQ] Jordanian National Democratic Grouping Party [Shakir al-ABBADI] Jordanian National Party [Muna ABU-BAKR] Jordanian National Union Party [Zeid ABU-ZEID] Jordanian Progressive Ba’th Party [Fu’ad DABBOUR] Jordanian Promise Party [Mahmoud al-KHALILI] Jordanian Reform Party [Eid DHAYYAT] Jordanian Social Justice Party [Abd-al-Fattah al-NSOUR] Jordanian Wafa’ (Loyalty) Party [Mazin al-QADI] Justice and Reform Party [Sa’eed Nathir ARABIYAT] Modernity and Change Party [Nayef al-HAMAYDEH] National Congress Party [Irhayil GHARAYBEH] (formerly the Zamzam party) National Renaissance Front Party [Isma’il KHATATBEH] National Unity Party [Muhammad al-ZBOUN] Pan Arab Movement Party [Dayfallah FARRAJ] Partnership and Salvation Party [Muhammad al-HAMMOURI] Reform and Renewal Party [Mazin RYAL] Risalah Party [Hazim QASHOU’] Stronger Jordan Party [Rula al-HROUB] Unified Jordanian Front Party [Farouq AL-ABBADI]
National symbol(s): eagle;
national colors: black, white, green, red
National anthem: name: "As-salam al-malaki al-urdoni" (Long Live the King of Jordan)
lyrics/music: Abdul-Mone'm al-RIFAI'/Abdul-Qader al-TANEER

note: adopted 1946; the shortened version of the anthem is used most commonly, while the full version is reserved for special occasions
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dina Khalil Tawiq KAWAR (since 27 June 2016)
chancery: 3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 966-2664
FAX: [1] (202) 966-3110
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Karen SASAHARA (since March 2019)
embassy: Abdoun, Al-Umawyeen St., Amman
mailing address: P. O. Box 354, Amman 11118 Jordan; Unit 70200, Box 5, DPO AE 09892-0200
telephone: [962] (6) 590-6000
FAX: [962] (6) 592-0163
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Jordan's economy is among the smallest in the Middle East, with insufficient supplies of water, oil, and other natural resources, underlying the government's heavy reliance on foreign assistance. Other economic challenges for the government include chronic high rates of unemployment and underemployment, budget and current account deficits, and government debt. King ABDALLAH, during the first decade of the 2000s, implemented significant economic reforms, such as expanding foreign trade and privatizing state-owned companies that attracted foreign investment and contributed to average annual economic growth of 8% for 2004 through 2008. The global economic slowdown and regional turmoil contributed to slower growth from 2010 to 2017 - with growth averaging about 2.5% per year - and hurt export-oriented sectors, construction/real estate, and tourism. Since the onset of the civil war in Syria and resulting refugee crisis, one of Jordan’s most pressing socioeconomic challenges has been managing the influx of approximately 660,000 UN-registered refugees, more than 80% of whom live in Jordan’s urban areas. Jordan’s own official census estimated the refugee number at 1.3 million Syrians as of early 2016. Jordan is nearly completely dependent on imported energy—mostly natural gas—and energy consistently makes up 25-30% of Jordan’s imports. To diversify its energy mix, Jordan has secured several contracts for liquefied and pipeline natural gas, developed several major renewables projects, and is currently exploring nuclear power generation and exploitation of abundant oil shale reserves. In August 2016, Jordan and the IMF agreed to a $723 million Extended Fund Facility that aims to build on the three-year, $2.1 billion IMF program that ended in August 2015 with the goal of helping Jordan correct budgetary and balance of payments imbalances.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $89 billion (2017 est.) $87.28 billion (2016 est.) $85.56 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $40.13 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2% (2017 est.) 2% (2016 est.) 2.4% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $9,200 (2017 est.) $9,200 (2016 est.) $9,300 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 9.1% of GDP (2017 est.) 9.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 10.2% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 80.5% (2017 est.) government consumption: 19.8% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 22.8% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 34.2% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -58% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 4.5% (2017 est.) industry: 28.8% (2017 est.) services: 66.6% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: citrus, tomatoes, cucumbers, olives, strawberries, stone fruits; sheep, poultry, dairy
Industries: tourism, information technology, clothing, fertilizer, potash, phosphate mining, pharmaceuticals, petroleum refining, cement, inorganic chemicals, light manufacturing
Industrial production growth rate: 1.4% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 2.295 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 2%
industry: 20%
services: 78% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate: 18.3% (2017 est.) 15.3% (2016 est.) note: official rate; unofficial rate is approximately 30%
Population below poverty line: 14.2% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 28.7% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 39.7 (2007) 36.4 (1997)
Budget: revenues: 9.462 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 11.51 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 23.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -5.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 95.9% of GDP (2017 est.) 95.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover central government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.3% (2017 est.) -0.8% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$4.257 billion (2017 est.) -$3.693 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $7.511 billion (2017 est.) $7.509 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: textiles, fertilizers, potash, phosphates, vegetables, pharmaceuticals
Exports - partners: US 24.9%, Saudi Arabia 12.8%, India 8.2%, Iraq 8.2%, Kuwait 5.4%, UAE 4.6% (2017)
Imports: $18.21 billion (2017 est.) $17.14 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: crude oil, refined petroleum products, machinery, transport equipment, iron, cereals
Imports - partners: China 13.6%, Saudi Arabia 13.6%, US 9.9%, UAE 4.9%, Germany 4.4% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $15.56 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $15.54 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $29.34 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $26.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $33.83 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $32.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $646.5 million (31 December 2017 est.) $612.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $24.25 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $25.45 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $25.55 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Exchange rates: Jordanian dinars (JOD) per US dollar - 0.71 (2017 est.) 0.71 (2016 est.) 0.71 (2015 est.) 0.71 (2014 est.) 0.71 (2013 est.)
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Electricity - production: 18.6 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 16.82 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 50 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports: 334 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 4.764 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 87% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 12% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 22 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 67,980 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 1 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 67,240 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 139,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 68,460 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 121.8 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 5.238 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 1.359 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 6.456 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 6.031 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 27.39 million Mt (2017 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 9,818,446
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 96 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: microwave radio relay transmission and coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; growing mobile-cellular usage in both urban and rural areas is reducing use of fixed-line services; recent influx of refugees putting burden on country's econmy, infrastructure and society; mobile broadband area of growth with 4G services (2018)

domestic: 1995 telecommunications law opened all non-fixed-line services to private competition; in 2005, monopoly over fixed-line services terminated and the entire telecommunications sector was opened to competition; currently multiple mobile-cellular providers with subscribership up to 96 per 100 persons; fixed-line 4 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 962; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) FEA and FLAG Falcon submarine cable networks; satellite earth stations - 33 (3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals); fiber-optic cable to Saudi Arabia and microwave radio relay link with Egypt and Syria; participant in Medarabtel (2016)
Broadcast media: radio and TV dominated by the government-owned Jordan Radio and Television Corporation (JRTV) that operates a main network, a sports network, a film network, and a satellite channel; first independent TV broadcaster aired in 2007; international satellite TV and Israeli and Syrian TV broadcasts are available; roughly 30 radio stations with JRTV operating the main government-owned station; transmissions of multiple international radio broadcasters are available
Internet country code: .jo
Internet users: total: 5,099,674
percent of population: 62.3% (July 2016 est.)
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Airports: 18 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 16
(2017) over 3,047 m: 8 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 2
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2012)
Pipelines: 473 km gas, 49 km oil (2013)
Railways: total 509 km
narrow gauge: 509 km 1.050-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 7,203 km
(2011) paved: 7,203 km (2011)
Merchant marine: total 32

by type: general cargo 8, oil tanker 1, other 23 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Al 'Aqabah
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Military branches: Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF): Royal Jordanian Land Force (RJLF), Royal Jordanian Navy, Royal Jordanian Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Malakiya al-Urduniya, RJAF), Special Operations Command (Socom); Public Security Directorate (normally falls under Ministry of Interior, but comes under JAF in wartime or crisis) (2017)
Military service age and obligation: 17 years of age for voluntary male military service; initial service term 2 years, with option to reenlist for 18 years; conscription at age 18 suspended in 1999; women are not conscripted, but can volunteer to serve in noncombat military positions in the Royal Jordanian Arab Army Women's Corps and RJAF (2013)
Military expenditures: 4.8% of GDP (2017) 4.58% of GDP (2016) 4.31% of GDP (2015) 4.32% of GDP (2014) 4.3% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: 2004 Agreement settles border dispute with Syria pending demarcation
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 2,242,579 (Palestinian refugees), 660,330 (Syria), 67,453 (Iraq), 14,689 (Yemen), 6,149 Sudan (2019)
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