Lithuania Population: 2,793,284


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Lithuanian lands were united under MINDAUGAS in 1236; over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler. In 1569, Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This entity survived until 1795 when its remnants were partitioned by surrounding countries. Lithuania regained its independence following World War I but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004. In 2015, Lithuania joined the euro zone, and it joined the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in 2018.

    Fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits
Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia, west of Belarus
Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 24 00 E
Area: total: 65,300 sq km
land: 62,680 sq km
water: 2,620 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than West Virginia
Land Boundaries: total: 1,549 km border countries (4): Belarus 640 km, Latvia 544 km, Poland 104 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 261 km
Coastline: 90 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate: transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers
Terrain: lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
Natural resources: peat, arable land, amber
Land use: agricultural land: 44.8% (2011 est.) arable land: 34.9% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0.5% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 9.4% (2011 est.) forest: 34.6% (2011 est.)
other: 20.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 44 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: occasional floods, droughts
Current Environment Issues: water pollution; air pollution; deforestation; threatened animal and plant species; chemicals and waste materials released into the environment contaminate soil and groundwater; soil degradation and erosion
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Lithuanian(s)
adjective: Lithuanian
Ethnic groups: Lithuanian 84.1%, Polish 6.6%, Russian 5.8%, Belarusian 1.2%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.2% (2011 est.)
Languages: Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other 0.9%, unspecified 3.5% (2011 est.)
Religions: Roman Catholic 77.2%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Old Believer 0.8%, Evangelical Lutheran 0.6%, Evangelical Reformist 0.2%, other (including Sunni Muslim, Jewish, Greek Catholic, and Karaite) 0.8%, none 6.1%, unspecified 10.1% (2011 est.)
Population: 2,793,284 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.11% (male 216,519 /female 205,624)
15-24 years: 10.7% (male 154,708 /female 144,244)
25-54 years: 39.72% (male 548,586 /female 561,007)
55-64 years: 14.55% (male 180,294 /female 226,250)
65 years and over: 19.91% (male 188,269 /female 367,783) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 49.9 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 21.9 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 28 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 3.6 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 44 years
male: 39.8 years
female: 47.4 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: -1.1% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 9.8 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 14.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -6.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 67.7% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: -0.31% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 536,000 VILNIUS (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.8 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.51 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 27 years (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 10 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births male: 4.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.2 years male: 69.9 years
female: 80.8 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Physicians density: 4.34 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density: 7.3 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99.7% of population
rural: 90.4% of population
total: 96.6% of population

urban: 0.3% of population
rural: 9.6% of population
total: 3.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 97.2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 82.8% of population (2015 est.)
total: 92.4% of population (2015 est.)

urban: 2.8% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 17.2% of population (2015 est.)
total: 7.6% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2,800 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <100 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 26.3% (2016)
Education expenditures: 4.2% of GDP (2015)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years male: 16 years female: 17 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 13.3% male: 14.6% female: 11.7% (2017 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form: Lithuania
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
local short form: Lietuva
former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: meaning of the name "Lietuva" remains unclear; it may derive from the Lietava, a stream in east central Lithuania
Government type: semi-presidential republic
Capital: name: Vilnius
geographic coordinates: 54 41 N, 25 19 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: named after the Vilnia River, which flows into the Neris River at Vilnius; the river name derives from the Lithuanian word "vilnis" meaning "a surge"
Administrative divisions: 60 municipalities (savivaldybe, singular - savivaldybe); Akmene, Alytaus Miestas, Alytus, Anksciai, Birstono, Birzai, Druskininkai, Elektrenai, Ignalina, Jonava, Joniskis, Jurbarkas, Kaisiadorys, Kalvarijos, Kauno Miestas, Kaunas, Kazlu Rudos, Kedainiai, Kelme, Klaipedos Miestas, Klaipeda, Kretinga, Kupiskis, Lazdijai, Marijampole, Mazeikiai, Moletai, Neringa, Pagegiai, Pakruojis, Palangos Miestas, Panevezio Miestas, Panevezys, Pasvalys, Plunge, Prienai, Radviliskis, Raseiniai, Rietavo, Rokiskis, Sakiai, Salcininkai, Siauliu Miestas, Siauliai, Silale, Silute, Sirvintos, Skuodas, Svencionys, Taurage, Telsiai, Trakai, Ukmerge, Utena, Varena, Vilkaviskis, Vilniaus Miestas, Vilnius, Visaginas, Zarasai
Independence: 11 March 1990 (declared independence from the Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (recognized by the Soviet Union);

notable earlier dates: 6 July 1253 (coronation of MINDAUGAS, traditional founding date); 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created); 16 February 1918 (independence from Soviet Russia and Germany)
National holiday: Independence Day (or National Day), 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 was the date Lithuania established its statehood and its concomitant independence from Soviet Russia and Germany; 11 March 1990 was the date it declared the restoration of Lithuanian statehood and its concomitant independence from the Soviet Union
Constitution: history: several previous; latest adopted by referendum 25 October 1992, entered into force 2 November 1992 amendments: proposed by at least one-fourth of all Parliament members or by petition of at least 300,000 voters; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament in each of two readings three months apart and a presidential signature; amendments to constitutional articles on national sovereignty and constitutional amendment procedure also require three-fourths voter approval in a referendum; amended 1996, 2003, 2006 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the Constitutional Court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Gitanas NAUSEDA (since 12 July 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Saulius SKVERNELIS (since 13 December 2016)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president, and approved by Parliament elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 and 26 May 2019 (next to be held in May 2024); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by Parliament

election results: Gitanas NAUSEDA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Gitanas NAUSEDA (independent) 66.7%, Ingrida SIMONYTE (independent) 33.3%; Saulius SKVERNELIS (LVZS) approved as prime minister by Parliament vote - 90 to 4
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote and 70 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 9 and 23 October 2016 (next to be held in October 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party - TS-LKD 22.6%, LVLS 22.5%, LSDP 15%, LS 9.5%, LCP-LPP 6.3%, LLRA 5.7%, TT 5.6%, DP 4.9%, LZP 2%, Lithuanian List 1.8%, other 4.1%; seats by party - LVLS 54, TS-LKD 31, LSDP 17, LS 14, LLRA 8, TT 8, DP 2, LCP-LPP 1, LZP 1, Lithuanian List 1, independent 4; composition - men 111, women 30, percent of women 21.3%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 37 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Seimas; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Seimas from nominations - three each by the president of the republic, by the Seimas chairperson, and by the Supreme Court president; judges serve 9-year, nonrenewable terms; one-third of membership reconstituted every 3 years

subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; district and local courts
Political parties and leaders: Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles or LLRA [Valdemar TOMASEVSKI] Farmers and Greens Union or LVZS [Ramunas KARBAUSKIS] Homeland Union-Lithuanian Christian Democrats or TS-LKD [Gabrielius LANDSBERGIS] Labor Party or LP [Viktor USPASKICH] Lithuanian Center Party or LCP [Naglis PUTEIKIS] Lithuanian Green Party or LZP [Linas BALSYS] Lithuanian Liberal Movement or LS or LRLS (Eugenijus GENTVILAS) Lithuanian List or LL [Darius KUOLYS] Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Gintautas PALUCKAS] Lithuanian Social Democratic Labor Party [Gediminas KIRKILAS] Order and Justice Party or TT [Remigijus ZEMAITAITIS]
International organization participation: Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): mounted knight known as Vytis (the Chaser), white stork;
national colors: yellow, green, red
National anthem: name: "Tautiska giesme" (The National Song)
lyrics/music: Vincas KUDIRKA

note: adopted 1918, restored 1990; written in 1898 while Lithuania was a part of Russia; banned during the Soviet occupation from 1940 to 1990
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Rolandas KRISCIUNAS (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Anne HALL (since 7 October 2016)
embassy: Akmenu gatve 6, Vilnius, LT-03106
mailing address: American Embassy, Akmenu Gatve 6, Vilnius LT-03106
telephone: [370] (5) 266-5500
FAX: [370] (5) 266-5510
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After the country declared independence from the Soviet Union in 1990, Lithuania faced an initial dislocation that is typical during transitions from a planned economy to a free-market economy. Macroeconomic stabilization policies, including privatization of most state-owned enterprises, and a strong commitment to a currency board arrangement led to an open and rapidly growing economy and rising consumer demand. Foreign investment and EU funding aided in the transition. Lithuania joined the WTO in May 2001, the EU in May 2004, and the euro zone in January 2015, and is now working to complete the OECD accession roadmap it received in July 2015. In 2017, joined the OECD Working Group on Bribery, an important step in the OECD accession process. The Lithuanian economy was severely hit by the 2008-09 global financial crisis, but it has rebounded and become one of the fastest growing in the EU. Increases in exports, investment, and wage growth that supported consumption helped the economy grow by 3.6% in 2017. In 2015, Russia was Lithuania’s largest trading partner, followed by Poland, Germany, and Latvia; goods and services trade between the US and Lithuania totaled $2.2 billion. Lithuania opened a self-financed liquefied natural gas terminal in January 2015, providing the first non-Russian supply of natural gas to the Baltic States and reducing Lithuania’s dependence on Russian gas from 100% to approximately 30% in 2016. Lithuania’s ongoing recovery hinges on improving the business environment, especially by liberalizing labor laws, and improving competitiveness and export growth, the latter hampered by economic slowdowns in the EU and Russia. In addition, a steady outflow of young and highly educated people is causing a shortage of skilled labor, which, combined with a rapidly aging population, could stress public finances and constrain long-term growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $91.47 billion (2017 est.) $88.07 billion (2016 est.) $86.05 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $47.26 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.9% (2017 est.) 2.3% (2016 est.) 2% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $32,400 (2017 est.) $30,700 (2016 est.) $29,600 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 18% of GDP (2017 est.) 16.2% of GDP (2016 est.) 17.8% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 63.9% (2017 est.) government consumption: 16.6% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 18.8% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: -1.3% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 81.6% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -79.3% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 3.5% (2017 est.) industry: 29.4% (2017 est.) services: 67.2% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs, pork, cheese; fish
Industries: metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, televisions, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture, textiles, food processing, fertilizer, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, lasers, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry, information technology, video game development, app/software development, biotechnology
Industrial production growth rate: 5.9% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 1.467 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 9.1%
industry: 25.2%
services: 65.8% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate: 7.1% (2017 est.) 7.9% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 22.2% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 28.8% (2015)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 37.9 (2015) 35 (2014)
Budget: revenues: 15.92 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 15.7 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 33.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): 0.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 39.7% of GDP (2017 est.) 40.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: official data; data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (2017 est.) 0.7% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $364 million (2017 est.) -$479 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $29.12 billion (2017 est.) $24.23 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: refined fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles, foodstuffs, plastics
Exports - partners: Russia 15%, Latvia 9.9%, Poland 8.1%, Germany 7.3%, US 5.2%, Estonia 5%, Sweden 4.8% (2017)
Imports: $31.56 billion (2017 est.) $26.21 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: oil, natural gas, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, metals
Imports - partners: Russia 13%, Germany 12.3%, Poland 10.6%, Latvia 7.1%, Italy 5.2%, Netherlands 5.1%, Sweden 4% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $4.45 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $1.697 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $34.48 billion (31 March 2016 est.) $31.6 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $20.43 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $15.87 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $6.268 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $4.48 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $6.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $6.799 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $7.127 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Exchange rates: litai (LTL) per US dollar - 0.884 (2017 est.) 0.9037 (2016 est.) 0.9037 (2015 est.) 0.9012 (2014 est.) 0.7525 (2013 est.)
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Electricity - production: 3.131 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 10.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 730 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports: 11.11 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 3.71 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 73% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 4% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 23% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 2,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 1,002 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 182,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 12 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 196,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 58,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 174,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 42,490 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 2.492 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 2.492 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 13.49 million Mt (2017 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 4,361,329
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 154 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate; being modernized to provide improved international capability and better residential access; SIM card penetration is high for the region; prepaid sector accounts for most subscribers; postpaid subscribers is increasing; LTE networks available to more than 99% of the population; Lithuanian FttP (fiber to the home cable connections for Internet) penetration ranked third highest in Europe (2018)

domestic: 17 per 100 for fixed-line subscriptions; rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services has resulted in a steady decline in the number of fixed-line connections; mobile-cellular teledensity stands at about 154 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 370; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland (2016)
Broadcast media: public broadcaster operates 3 channels with the third channel - a satellite channel - introduced in 2007; various privately owned commercial TV broadcasters operate national and multiple regional channels; many privately owned local TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV services available; publicly owned broadcaster operates 3 radio networks; many privately owned commercial broadcasters, with repeater stations in various regions throughout the country
Internet country code: .lt
Internet users: total: 2,122,884
percent of population: 74.4% (July 2016 est.)
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Airports: 61 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 22
(2017) over 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2017)
under 914 m: 9 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 39
(2013) over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
under 914 m: 36 (2013)
Pipelines: 1921 km gas, 121 km refined products (2013)
Railways: total 1,768 km
(2014) standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge (2014) broad gauge: 1,746 km 1.520-m gauge (122 km electrified) (2014)
Roadways: total 84,166 km
(2012) paved: 72,297 km (includes 312 km of expressways) (2012)
unpaved: 11,869 km (2012)
Waterways: 441 km (navigable year-round) (2007)
Merchant marine: total 61

by type: container ship 3, general cargo 28, oil tanker 2, other 28 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Klaipeda oil terminal(s): Butinge oil terminal LNG terminal(s) (import): Klaipeda
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Military branches: Lithuanian Armed Forces (Lietuvos Ginkluotosios Pajegos): Land Forces (Sausumos Pajegos), Naval Forces (Karines Juru Pajegos), Air Forces (Karines Oro Pajegos), Special Forces (Specialiuju Operaciju Pajegos); Volunteer Forces (Savanoriu Pajegos) (2016)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for military service; 9-month service obligation; in 2015, Lithuania reinstated conscription after having converted to a professional military in 2008 (2019)
Military expenditures: 2% of GDP (2018) 1.73% of GDP (2017) 1.49% of GDP (2016) 1.14% of GDP (2015) 0.88% of GDP (2014)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; boundary demarcated with Latvia and Lithuania; as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 3,039 (2018)
Illicit drugs: transshipment and destination point for cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, and opiates from Southwest Asia, Latin America, Western Europe, and neighboring Baltic countries; growing production of high-quality amphetamines, but limited production of cannabis, methamphetamines; susceptible to money laundering despite changes to banking legislation
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