Nigeria Population: 203,452,505


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British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy. After independence in 1960, politics were marked by coups and mostly military rule, until the death of a military head of state in 1998 allowed for a political transition. In 1999, a new constitution was adopted and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of institutionalizing democracy and reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history and the elections of 2011 were generally regarded as credible. The 2015 election was heralded for the fact that the then-umbrella opposition party, the All Progressives Congress, defeated the long-ruling People's Democratic Party that had governed since 1999 and assumed the presidency after a peaceful transfer of power. Successful presidential and legislative elections were held in early 2019.

    The Niger River enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 8 00 E
Area: total: 923,768 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km

Size comparison: about six times the size of Georgia; slightly more than twice the size of California
Land Boundaries: total: 4,477 km border countries (4): Benin 809 km, Cameroon 1975 km, Chad 85 km, Niger 1608 km
Coastline: 853 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
Terrain: southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 78% (2011 est.) arable land: 37.3% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 7.4% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 33.3% (2011 est.) forest: 9.5% (2011 est.)
other: 12.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 2,930 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts; flooding
Current Environment Issues: serious overpopulation and rapid urbanization have led to numerous environmental problems; urban air and water pollution; rapid deforestation; soil degradation; loss of arable land; oil pollution - water, air, and soil have suffered serious damage from oil spills
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian
Ethnic groups: Hausa 27.4%, Igbo (Ibo) 14.1%, Yoruba 13.9%, Fulani 6.3%, Tiv 2.2%, Ibibio 2.2%, Ijaw/Izon 2%, Kanuri/Beriberi 1.7%, Igala 1%, other 28.9%, unspecified .2% (2013 est.) note: Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups
Languages: English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages
Religions: Muslim 51.6%, Roman Catholic 11.2%, other Christian 35.7%, traditionalist .9%, unspecified .5% (2013 est.)
Population: 203,452,505 (July 2018 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.45% (male 44,087,799 /female 42,278,742)
15-24 years: 19.81% (male 20,452,045 /female 19,861,371)
25-54 years: 30.44% (male 31,031,253 /female 30,893,168)
55-64 years: 4.04% (male 4,017,658 /female 4,197,739)
65 years and over: 3.26% (male 3,138,206 /female 3,494,524) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 88.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 83 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 19.4 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 18.3 years
male: 18.1 years
female: 18.6 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.54% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 35.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 50.3% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 13.463 million Lagos
3.82 million Kano
3.383 million Ibadan
2.919 million ABUJA (capital)
2.343 million Port Harcourt
1.628 million Benin City (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 20.3 years (2013 est.) note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Maternal mortality rate: 814 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 63.3 deaths/1,000 live births male: 69.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 57.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 59.3 years male: 57.5 years
female: 61.1 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.85 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 27.6% (2018)
Physicians density: 0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 80.8% of population
rural: 57.3% of population
total: 68.5% of population

urban: 19.2% of population
rural: 42.7% of population
total: 31.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 32.8% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 25.4% of population (2015 est.)
total: 29% of population (2015 est.)

urban: 67.2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 74.6% of population (2015 est.)
total: 71% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.8% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3.1 million (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 150,000 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 8.9% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 31.5% (2016)
Education expenditures: n/a
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 59.6%
male: 69.2%
female: 49.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 9 years male: 9 years female: 8 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 12.4% male: n/a female: n/a (2016 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria
etymology: named for the Niger River that flows through the west of the country to the Atlantic Ocean; from a native term "Ni Gir" meaning "River Gir"
Government type: federal presidential republic
Capital: name: Abuja
geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: Abuja is a planned capital city, it replaced Lagos in 1991; situated in the center of the country, Abuja takes its name from a nearby town, now renamed Suleja
Administrative divisions: 36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
Independence: 1 October 1960 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
Constitution: history: several previous; latest adopted 5 May 1999, effective 29 May 1999 amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of both houses and approval by the Houses of Assembly of at least two-thirds of the states; amendments to constitutional articles on the creation of a new state, fundamental constitutional rights, or constitution-amending procedures requires at least four-fifths majority vote by both houses of the National Assembly and approval by the Houses of Assembly in at least two-thirds of the states; passage of amendments limited to the creation of a new state require at least two-thirds majority by the proposing National Assembly house and approval by the Houses of Assembly in two-thirds of the states; amended several times, last in 2018 (2018)
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Maj. Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015); note - the president is both chief of state, head of government, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces

head of government: President Maj.Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015)

cabinet: Federal Executive Council appointed by the president but constrained constitutionally to include at least one member from each of the 36 states elections/appointments: president directly elected by qualified majority popular vote and at least 25% of the votes cast in 24 of Nigeria's 36 states; president elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 February 2019 (next to be held in February 2023);

note: the election was scheduled for 16 February 2019, but postponed on 16 February 2019

election results: Muhammadu BUHARI elected president; percent of vote - Muhammadu BUHARI (APC) 53%, Atiku ABUBAKER (PDP) 39%, other 8%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral National Assembly consists of: Senate (109 seats - 3 each for the 36 states and 1 for Abuja-Federal Capital Territory; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms) House of Representatives (360 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 23 February 2019 (next to be held on 23 February 2023); note: election was scheduled for 16 February 2019 but was postponed on 15 February 2019 House of Representatives - last held on 23 February (next to be held on 23 February 2013); note: election was scheduled for 16 February 2019 but was postponed on 15 February 2019

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 65, PDP 39, YPP 1, TBD 3; composition - men 103, women 6, percent of women 5.5% House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 217, PDP 115, other 20, TBD 8; composition - men 346, women 14, percent of women 3.9%; note - total National Assembly percent of women 4.3%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 justices) judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a 23-member independent body of federal and state judicial officials; judge appointments confirmed by the Senate; judges serve until age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Federal High Court; High Court of the Federal Capital Territory; Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; state court system similar in structure to federal system
Political parties and leaders: Accord Party or ACC [Mohammad Lawal MALADO] All Progressives Congress or APC [Adams OSHIOMHOLE] All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor Ike OYE] Democratic Peoples Party or DPP [Biodun OGUNBIYI] Labor Party or LP [Alhai Abdulkadir ABDULSALAM] Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Uche SECONDUS] Young Progressive Party or YPP [Kingsley MOGHALU]
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, D-8, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): eagle;
national colors: green, white
National anthem: name: Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey
lyrics/music: John A. ILECHUKWU, Eme Etim AKPAN, B.A. OGUNNAIKE, Sotu OMOIGUI and P.O. ADERIBIGBE/Benedict Elide ODIASE

note: adopted 1978; lyrics are a mixture of the five top entries in a national contest
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sylvanus Adiewere NSOFOR (since 29 November 2017)
chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 516-4277
FAX: [1] (202) 362-6541
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador W. Stuart SYMINGTON (since 1 December 2016)
embassy: Plot 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja
mailing address: P. O. Box 5760, Garki, Abuja
telephone: [234] (9) 461-4000
FAX: [234] (9) 461-4036 consulate(s): Lagos
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Nigeria is Sub Saharan Africa’s largest economy and relies heavily on oil as its main source of foreign exchange earnings and government revenues. Following the 2008-09 global financial crises, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation enhanced. Since then, Nigeria’s economic growth has been driven by growth in agriculture, telecommunications, and services. Economic diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant decline in poverty levels; over 62% of Nigeria's over 180 million people still live in extreme poverty. Despite its strong fundamentals, oil-rich Nigeria has been hobbled by inadequate power supply, lack of infrastructure, delays in the passage of legislative reforms, an inefficient property registration system, restrictive trade policies, an inconsistent regulatory environment, a slow and ineffective judicial system, unreliable dispute resolution mechanisms, insecurity, and pervasive corruption. Regulatory constraints and security risks have limited new investment in oil and natural gas, and Nigeria's oil production had been contracting every year since 2012 until a slight rebound in 2017. President BUHARI, elected in March 2015, has established a cabinet of economic ministers that includes several technocrats, and he has announced plans to increase transparency, diversify the economy away from oil, and improve fiscal management, but has taken a primarily protectionist approach that favors domestic producers at the expense of consumers. President BUHARI ran on an anti-corruption platform, and has made some headway in alleviating corruption, such as implementation of a Treasury Single Account that allows the government to better manage its resources and a more transparent government payroll and personnel system that eliminated duplicate and "ghost workers." The government also is working to develop stronger public-private partnerships for roads, agriculture, and power. Nigeria entered recession in 2016 as a result of lower oil prices and production, exacerbated by militant attacks on oil and gas infrastructure in the Niger Delta region, coupled with detrimental economic policies, including foreign exchange restrictions. GDP growth turned positive in 2017 as oil prices recovered and output stabilized.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.121 trillion (2017 est.) $1.112 trillion (2016 est.) $1.13 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $376.4 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0.8% (2017 est.) -1.6% (2016 est.) 2.7% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,900 (2017 est.) $6,100 (2016 est.) $6,300 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 18.2% of GDP (2017 est.) 16% of GDP (2016 est.) 12.3% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 80% (2017 est.) government consumption: 5.8% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 14.8% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 11.9% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -13.2% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 21.1% (2016 est.) industry: 22.5% (2016 est.) services: 56.4% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: cocoa, peanuts, cotton, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (manioc, tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
Industries: crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel
Industrial production growth rate: 2.2% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 60.08 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 70%
industry: 10%
services: 20% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate: 16.5% (2017 est.) 13.9% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 70% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 38.2% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 48.8 (2013) 50.6 (1997)
Budget: revenues: 12.92 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 19.54 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 3.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -1.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 21.8% of GDP (2017 est.) 19.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16.5% (2017 est.) 15.7% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $10.38 billion (2017 est.) $2.714 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $1.146 billion (2017 est.) $34.7 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber (2012 est.)
Exports - partners: India 30.6%, US 12.1%, Spain 6.6%, China 5.6%, France 5.5%, Netherlands 4.4%, Indonesia 4.4% (2017)
Imports: $32.67 billion (2017 est.) $35.24 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
Imports - partners: China 21.1%, Belgium 8.7%, US 8.4%, South Korea 7.5%, UK 4.4% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $38.77 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $25.84 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $40.96 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $31.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $116.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $113.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $16.93 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $15.65 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $53.07 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $63.47 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $80.61 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: nairas (NGN) per US dollar - 323.5 (2017 est.) 253 (2016 est.) 253 (2015 est.) 192.73 (2014 est.) 158.55 (2013 est.)
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Electricity - production: 29.35 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 24.72 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 10.52 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 80% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 19% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 1.946 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 2.096 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 37.45 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 35,010 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 325,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 2,332 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 223,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 44.48 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 17.24 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 27.21 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 5.475 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 104 million Mt (2017 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 144,920,170
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 76 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: one of the larger telecom markets in Africa; foreign investment; market competition; LTE technologies available but GSM technology dominate; unified licensing regime; government committed to expanding broadband penetration; in Q1 2018, the Nigerian Communications Commission approved seven licenses to telecom companies to deploy fiber optic cable in the six geopolitical zones and Lagos (2018)

domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services growing rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple cellular providers operate nationally with subscribership base over 76 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Broadcast media: nearly 70 federal government-controlled national and regional TV stations; all 36 states operate TV stations; several private TV stations operational; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; network of federal government-controlled national, regional, and state radio stations; roughly 40 state government-owned radio stations typically carry their own programs except for news broadcasts; about 20 private radio stations; transmissions of international broadcasters are available; digital broadcasting migration process completed in three states in 2018 (2019)
Internet country code: .ng
Internet users: total: 47,759,904
percent of population: 25.7% (July 2016 est.)
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Airports: 54 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 40
(2017) over 3,047 m: 10 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2017)
under 914 m: 3 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 9 (2013)
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Heliports: 5 (2013)
Pipelines: 124 km condensate, 4045 km gas, 164 km liquid petroleum gas, 4441 km oil, 3940 km refined products (2013)
Railways: total 3,798 km
(2014) standard gauge: 293 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)

note: As of the end of 2018, there were only six operational locomotives in Nigeria primarily used for passenger service.  The majority of the rail lines are in a severe state of disrepair and need to be replaced.
Roadways: total 195,000 km
(2017) paved: 60,000 km (2017)
unpaved: 135,000 km (2017)
Waterways: 8,600 km (Niger and Benue Rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 576

by type: general cargo 14, oil tanker 90, other 472 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Bonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos LNG terminal(s) (export): Bonny Island
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Military branches: Nigerian Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures: 0.5% of GDP (2018) 0.43% of GDP (2016) 0.42% of GDP (2015) 0.41% of GDP (2014) 0.47% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Joint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phaseout of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 36,810 (Cameroon) (2019) IDPs: 1,980,036 (northeast Nigeria; Boko Haram attacks and counterinsurgency efforts in northern Nigeria; communal violence between Christians and Muslims in the middle belt region, political violence; flooding; forced evictions; cattle rustling; competition for resources) (2019)
Illicit drugs: a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; consumer of amphetamines; safe haven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity; Nigeria has improved some anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in June 2006; Nigeria's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF
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