Tunisia Population: 11,516,189


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Rivalry between French and Italian interests in Tunisia culminated in a French invasion in 1881 and the creation of a protectorate. Agitation for independence in the decades following World War I was finally successful in convincing the French to recognize Tunisia as an independent state in 1956. The country's first president, Habib BOURGUIBA, established a strict one-party state. He dominated the country for 31 years, repressing Islamic fundamentalism and establishing rights for women unmatched by any other Arab nation. In November 1987, BOURGUIBA was removed from office and replaced by Zine el Abidine BEN ALI in a bloodless coup. Street protests that began in Tunis in December 2010 over high unemployment, corruption, widespread poverty, and high food prices escalated in January 2011, culminating in rioting that led to hundreds of deaths. On 14 January 2011, the same day BEN ALI dismissed the government, he fled the country, and by late January 2011, a "national unity government" was formed. Elections for the new Constituent Assembly were held in late October 2011, and in December, it elected human rights activist Moncef MARZOUKI as interim president. The Assembly began drafting a new constitution in February 2012 and, after several iterations and a months-long political crisis that stalled the transition, ratified the document in January 2014. Parliamentary and presidential elections for a permanent government were held at the end of 2014. Beji CAID ESSEBSI was elected as the first president under the country's new constitution. CAID ESSEBSI’s term, as well as that of Tunisia’s 217-member Parliament, expires in 2019.

    Strategic location in central Mediterranean; Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration
Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Libya
Geographic coordinates: 34 00 N, 9 00 E
Area: total: 163,610 sq km
land: 155,360 sq km
water: 8,250 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than Georgia
Land Boundaries: total: 1,495 km border countries (2): Algeria 1034 km, Libya 461 km
Coastline: 1,148 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
Climate: temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south
Terrain: mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara
Natural resources: petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt
Land use: agricultural land: 64.8% (2011 est.) arable land: 18.3% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 15.4% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 31.1% (2011 est.) forest: 6.6% (2011 est.)
other: 28.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 4,590 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: flooding; earthquakes; droughts
Current Environment Issues: toxic and hazardous waste disposal is ineffective and poses health risks; water pollution from raw sewage; limited natural freshwater resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
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Nationality: noun: Tunisian(s)
adjective: Tunisian
Ethnic groups: Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%
Languages: Arabic (official, one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce), Berber (Tamazight) note: despite having no official status, French plays a major role in the country and is spoken by about two thirds of the population
Religions: Muslim (official; Sunni) 99.1%, other (includes Christian, Jewish, Shia Muslim, and Baha'i) 1%
Population: 11,516,189 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 25.25% (male 1,502,655 /female 1,405,310)
15-24 years: 13.53% (male 787,178 /female 770,929)
25-54 years: 43.25% (male 2,426,011 /female 2,554,253)
55-64 years: 9.75% (male 560,233 /female 562,436)
65 years and over: 8.22% (male 448,784 /female 498,400) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 45.6 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 34.5 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 11.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 9 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 32 years
male: 31.3 years
female: 32.5 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.95% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 17.4 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 68.9% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.53% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 2.291 million TUNIS (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 62 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 11.7 deaths/1,000 live births male: 12.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.9 years male: 74.3 years
female: 77.6 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.17 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 62.5% (2011/12)
Physicians density: 1.27 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density: 2.2 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 93.2% of population
total: 97.7% of population

urban: 0% of population
rural: 6.8% of population
total: 2.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 97.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 79.8% of population (2015 est.)
total: 91.6% of population (2015 est.)

urban: 2.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 20.2% of population (2015 est.)
total: 8.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: <.1% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <200 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 26.9% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 2.8% (2012)
Education expenditures: 6.6% of GDP (2015)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 81.8%
male: 89.6%
female: 74.2% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years male: 14 years n/a female: 16 years n/a (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 34.7% male: 33.4% female: 37.7% (2013 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Tunisia
conventional short form: Tunisia
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah
local short form: Tunis
etymology: the country name derives from the capital city of Tunis
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Tunis
geographic coordinates: 36 48 N, 10 11 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 24 governorates (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Beja (Bajah), Ben Arous (Bin 'Arus), Bizerte (Banzart), Gabes (Qabis), Gafsa (Qafsah), Jendouba (Jundubah), Kairouan (Al Qayrawan), Kasserine (Al Qasrayn), Kebili (Qibili), Kef (Al Kaf), L'Ariana (Aryanah), Mahdia (Al Mahdiyah), Manouba (Manubah), Medenine (Madanin), Monastir (Al Munastir), Nabeul (Nabul), Sfax (Safaqis), Sidi Bouzid (Sidi Bu Zayd), Siliana (Silyanah), Sousse (Susah), Tataouine (Tatawin), Tozeur (Tawzar), Tunis, Zaghouan (Zaghwan)
Independence: 20 March 1956 (from France)
National holiday: Independence Day, 20 March (1956); Revolution and Youth Day, 14 January (2011)
Constitution: history: several previous; latest approved by Constituent Assembly 26 January 2014, signed by the president, prime minister, and Constituent Assembly speaker 27 January 2014 amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by one-third of members of the Assembly of the Representatives of the People; following review by the Constitutional Court, approval to proceed requires an absolute majority vote by the Assembly and final passage requires a two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; the president can opt to submit an amendment to a referendum, which requires an absolute majority of votes cast for passage (2017)
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil law, based on the French civil code and Islamic law; some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal except for active government security forces (including the police and the military), people with mental disabilities, people who have served more than three months in prison (criminal cases only), and people given a suspended sentence of more than six months
Executive branch: chief of state: Interim President Mohamed ENNACEUR (since 25 July 2019); note - President Beji CAID ESSEBSI (since 31 December 2014) died on 25 July 2019

head of government: Prime Minister Youssef CHAHED (since 27 August 2016)

cabinet: selected by the prime minister and approved by the Assembly of the Representatives of the People elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 November with a runoff on 21 December 2014 (next to be held on 15 September 2019); following legislative elections, the prime minister is selected by the majority party or majority coalition and appointed by the president

election results: Beji CAID ESSEBSI elected president in second round; percent of vote - Beji CAID ESSEBSI (Call for Tunisia Party) 55.7%, Moncef MARZOUKI (CPR) 44.3%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Assembly of the Representatives of the People or Majlis Nuwwab ash-Sha'b (Assemblee des representants du peuple) (217 seats; 199 members directly elected in Tunisian multi-seat constituencies and 18 members in multi-seat constituencies abroad by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: initial election held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held on 6 October 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party - Call for Tunisia 37.6%, Ennahdha 27.8%, UPL 4.1%, Popular Front 3.6%, Afek Tounes 3%, CPR 2.1%, other 21.8%; seats by party - Call to Tunisia 86, Nahda 69, UPL 16, Popular Front 15, Afek Tounes 8, CPR 4, other 17, independent 2; composition as of November 2018 - men 149, women 68, percent of women 31.3% Note: In August 2018, Prime Minister Chahed left the Nidaa Tounes party and began building a “National Coalition” bloc, partnering with the al-Nadha party to form a parliamentary majority. As of November 2018, Tunisia’s parliamentary numbers are as follows: percent of votes by party—al-Nadha 30.9%, Nidaa Tounes 21.2%, National Coalition 20.3%, Popular Front 6.9%, Machrou Tounes’ Al-Horrah Bloc 6.9%, Democratic Bloc 5.5%, Loyalty to the Nation Bloc 5.1%, Independent 3.2%; seats by party—al-Nadha 67, Nidaa Tounes 46, National Coalition 44, Popular Front 15, Machrou Tounes’ Al-Horrah Bloc 15, Democratic Bloc 12, Loyalty to the Nation Bloc 11, Independent 7.
Judicial branch: highest courts: Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (organized into 1 civil and 3 criminal chambers); Constitutional Court (established in 2014, but remained vacant as of late 2018) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Supreme Judicial Council, an independent 4-part body consisting mainly of elected judges and the remainder legal specialists; judge tenure based on terms of appointment; Constitutional Court NA

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; administrative courts; Court of Audit; Housing Court; courts of first instance; lower district courts; military courts note: the new Tunisian constitution of January 2014 called for the creation of a constitutional court by the end of 2015, but as of November 2018, the court had not been appointed; the court to consist of 12 members - 4 each to be appointed by the president, the Supreme Judicial Council (an independent 4-part body consisting mainly of elected judges and the remainder -  legal specialists), and the Chamber of the People's Deputies (parliament); members are to serve 9-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years
Political parties and leaders: Afek Tounes [Yassine BRAHIM]Al Badil Al-Tounisi (The Tunisian Alternative) [Mehdi JOMAA] Call for Tunisia Party (Nidaa Tounes) [Hafedh CAID ESSEBSI] Congress for the Republic Party or CPR [Imed DAIMI] Current of Love [Hachemi HAMDI] (formerly the Popular Petition party) Democratic Alliance Party [Mohamed HAMDI] Democratic Current [Mohamed ABBOU] Democratic Patriots' Unified Party [Zied LAKHDHAR] Free Patriotic Union (Union patriotique libre) or UPL  [Slim RIAHI] Green Tunisia Party [Abdelkader ZITOUNI] Long Live Tunisia (Tahya Tounes) [Youssef CHAHED] Machrou Tounes (Tunisia Project) [Mohsen MARZOUK] Movement of Socialist Democrats or MDS [Ahmed KHASKHOUSSI] Nahda Movement (The Renaissance) [Rachid GHANNOUCHI] National Destourian Initiative or El Moubadra [Kamel MORJANE] Party of the Democratic Arab Vanguard [Ahmed JEDDICK, Kheireddine SOUABNI] People's Movement [Zouheir MAGHZAOUI] Popular Front (coalition includes Democratic Patriots' Unified Party, Workers' Party, Green Tunisia, Tunisian Ba'ath Movement, Party of the Democratic Arab Vanguard) Republican Party [Maya JRIBI] Tunisian Ba'ath Movement [OMAR Othman BELHADJ] Tunisia First (Tunis Awlan) [Ridha BELHAJ] Workers' Party [Hamma HAMMAMI]
International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CD, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): encircled red crescent moon and five-pointed star;
national colors: red, white
National anthem: name: "Humat Al Hima" (Defenders of the Homeland)
lyrics/music: Mustafa Sadik AL-RAFII and Aboul-Qacem ECHEBBI/Mohamad Abdel WAHAB

note: adopted 1957, replaced 1958, restored 1987; Mohamad Abdel WAHAB also composed the music for the anthem of the United Arab Emirates
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Faycal GOUIA (since 18 May 2015)
chancery: 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 862-1850
FAX: [1] (202) 862-1858
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Donald A. BLOME (since 21 February 2019)
embassy: Les Berges du Lac, 1053 Tunis
mailing address: Zone Nord-Est des Berges du Lac Nord de Tunis 1053
telephone: [216] 71 107-000
FAX: [216] 71 107-090
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Tunisia's economy – structurally designed to favor vested interests – faced an array of challenges exposed by the 2008 global financial crisis that helped precipitate the 2011 Arab Spring revolution. After the revolution and a series of terrorist attacks, including on the country’s tourism sector, barriers to economic inclusion continued to add to slow economic growth and high unemployment. Following an ill-fated experiment with socialist economic policies in the 1960s, Tunisia focused on bolstering exports, foreign investment, and tourism, all of which have become central to the country's economy. Key exports now include textiles and apparel, food products, petroleum products, chemicals, and phosphates, with about 80% of exports bound for Tunisia's main economic partner, the EU. Tunisia's strategy, coupled with investments in education and infrastructure, fueled decades of 4-5% annual GDP growth and improved living standards. Former President Zine el Abidine BEN ALI (1987-2011) continued these policies, but as his reign wore on cronyism and corruption stymied economic performance, unemployment rose, and the informal economy grew. Tunisia’s economy became less and less inclusive. These grievances contributed to the January 2011 overthrow of BEN ALI, further depressing Tunisia's economy as tourism and investment declined sharply. Tunisia’s government remains under pressure to boost economic growth quickly to mitigate chronic socio-economic challenges, especially high levels of youth unemployment, which has persisted since the 2011 revolution. Successive terrorist attacks against the tourism sector and worker strikes in the phosphate sector, which combined account for nearly 15% of GDP, slowed growth from 2015 to 2017. Tunis is seeking increased foreign investment and working with the IMF through an Extended Fund Facility agreement to fix fiscal deficiencies.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $137.7 billion (2017 est.) $135 billion (2016 est.) $133.5 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $39.96 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2% (2017 est.) 1.1% (2016 est.) 1.2% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $11,900 (2017 est.) $11,800 (2016 est.) $11,800 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 12% of GDP (2017 est.) 13.4% of GDP (2016 est.) 12.5% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 71.7% (2017 est.) government consumption: 20.8% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 19.4% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 43.2% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -55.2% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 10.1% (2017 est.) industry: 26.2% (2017 est.) services: 63.8% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: olives, olive oil, grain, tomatoes, citrus fruit, sugar beets, dates, almonds; beef, dairy products
Industries: petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate, iron ore), tourism, textiles, footwear, agribusiness, beverages
Industrial production growth rate: 0.5% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 4.054 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 14.8%
industry: 33.2%
services: 51.7% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate: 15.5% (2017 est.) 15.5% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 15.5% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 27% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 40 (2005 est.) 41.7 (1995 est.)
Budget: revenues: 9.876 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 12.21 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 24.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -5.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 70.3% of GDP (2017 est.) 62.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.3% (2017 est.) 3.7% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$4.191 billion (2017 est.) -$3.694 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $13.82 billion (2017 est.) $13.57 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: clothing, semi-finished goods and textiles, agricultural products, mechanical goods, phosphates and chemicals, hydrocarbons, electrical equipment
Exports - partners: France 32.1%, Italy 17.3%, Germany 12.4% (2017)
Imports: $19.09 billion (2017 est.) $18.37 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: textiles, machinery and equipment, hydrocarbons, chemicals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: Italy 15.8%, France 15.1%, China 9.2%, Germany 8.1%, Turkey 4.8%, Algeria 4.7%, Spain 4.5% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $5.594 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $5.941 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $30.19 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $28.95 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $37.95 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $37.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $285 million (31 December 2017 est.) $285 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $8.887 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $9.662 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $10.68 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates: Tunisian dinars (TND) per US dollar - 2.48 (2017 est.) 2.148 (2016 est.) 2.148 (2015 est.) 1.9617 (2014 est.) 1.6976 (2013 est.)
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Electricity - production: 18.44 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 15.27 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 500 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports: 134 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 5.768 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 94% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 5% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 49,170 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 39,980 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 17,580 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 425 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 27,770 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 102,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 13,660 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 85,340 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 1.274 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 5.125 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 3.851 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 65.13 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 23.42 million Mt (2017 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 14,334,080
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 126 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: above the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; telephone network is completely digitized; Internet access available throughout the country; penetration rates and Internet services are among the highest in the region; launched Tunisia's first commercial 3G mobile service; in 2016 the regulator accepted 3 MNO (mobile network operator) bids for LTE licenses; government Internet censorship abolished in 2013 (2018)

domestic: in an effort to jumpstart expansion of the fixed-line network, the government awarded a concession to build and operate a VSAT network with international connectivity; rural areas are served by wireless local loops; competition between several mobile-cellular service providers has resulted in lower activation and usage charges and a strong surge in subscribership; fixed-line is 10 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity has reached about 126 telephones per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 216; a landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya; participant in Medarabtel; 2 international gateway digital switches (2017)
Broadcast media: 1 state-owned TV station with multiple transmission sites; 5 private TV stations broadcast locally; cable TV service is available; state-owned radio network with 2 stations (in Lome and Kara); several dozen private radio stations and a few community radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available (2019)
Internet country code: .tn
Internet users: total: 5,665,242
percent of population: 50.9% (July 2016 est.)
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Airports: 29 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 15
(2013) over 3,047 m: 4 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2013)
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
Pipelines: 68 km condensate, 3111 km gas, 1381 km oil, 453 km refined products (2013)
Railways: total 2,173 km
(1,991 in use) (2014) standard gauge: 471 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
narrow gauge: 1,694 km 1.000-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2014) dual gauge: 8 km 1.435-1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: paved: 20,000 km (2015)
Merchant marine: total 66

by type: general cargo 14, oil tanker 1, other 51 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Bizerte, Gabes, Rades, Sfax, Skhira
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Military branches: Tunisian Armed Forces (Forces Armees Tunisiens, FAT): Tunisian Army (includes Tunisian Air Defense Force), Tunisian Navy, Republic of Tunisia Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jamahiriyah At'Tunisia) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 20-23 years of age for compulsory service, 1-year service obligation; 18-23 years of age for voluntary service; Tunisian nationality required (2012)
Military expenditures: 2.03% of GDP (2017) 2.32% of GDP (2016) 2.27% of GDP (2015) 1.91% of GDP (2014) 1.64% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
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