Taiwan Population: 23,545,963


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First inhabited by Austronesian people, Taiwan became home to Han immigrants beginning in the late Ming Dynasty (17th century). In 1895, military defeat forced China's Qing Dynasty to cede Taiwan to Japan, which then governed Taiwan for 50 years. Taiwan came under Chinese Nationalist (Kuomintang, KMT) control after World War II. With the communist victory in the Chinese civil war in 1949, the Nationalist-controlled Republic of China government and 2 million Nationalists fled to Taiwan and continued to claim to be the legitimate government for mainland China and Taiwan based on a 1947 Constitution drawn up for all of China. Until 1987, however, the Nationalist government ruled Taiwan under a civil war martial law declaration dating to 1948. Beginning in the 1970s, Nationalist authorities gradually began to incorporate the native population into the governing structure beyond the local level. The democratization process expanded rapidly in the 1980s, leading to the then illegal founding of Taiwan’s first opposition party (the Democratic Progressive Party or DPP) in 1986 and the lifting of martial law the following year. Taiwan held legislative elections in 1992, the first in over forty years, and its first direct presidential election in 1996. In the 2000 presidential elections, Taiwan underwent its first peaceful transfer of power with the KMT loss to the DPP and afterwards experienced two additional democratic transfers of power in 2008 and 2016. Throughout this period, the island prospered, became one of East Asia's economic "Tigers," and after 2000 became a major investor in mainland China as cross-Strait ties matured. The dominant political issues continue to be economic reform and growth as well as management of sensitive relations between Taiwan and China.

    Strategic location adjacent to both the Taiwan Strait and the Luzon Strait
Location: Eastern Asia, islands bordering the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait, north of the Philippines, off the southeastern coast of China
Geographic coordinates: 23 30 N, 121 00 E
Area: total: 35,980 sq km
land: 32,260 sq km
water: 3,720 sq km

note: includes the Pescadores, Matsu, and Quemoy islands

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Maryland and Delaware combined
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 1,566.3 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August); persistent and extensive cloudiness all year
Terrain: eastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently rolling plains in west
Natural resources: small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone, marble, asbestos, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 22.7% (2011 est.) arable land: 16.9% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 5.8% (2011 est.)
other: 77.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 3,820 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: earthquakes; typhoons volcanism: Kueishantao Island (401 m), east of Taiwan, is its only historically active volcano, although it has not erupted in centuries
Current Environment Issues: air pollution; water pollution from industrial emissions, raw sewage; contamination of drinking water supplies; trade in endangered species; low-level radioactive waste disposal
International Environment Agreements: party to: none of the selected agreements because of Taiwan's international status
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Nationality: noun: Taiwan (singular and plural)
adjective: Taiwan (or Taiwanese) note: example - he or she is from Taiwan; they are from Taiwan
Ethnic groups: Han Chinese (including Hoklo, who compose approximately 70% of Taiwan's population, Hakka, and other groups originating in mainland China) more than 95%, indigenous Malayo-Polynesian peoples 2.3% note 1: there are 16 officially recognized indigenous groups: Amis, Atayal, Bunun, Hla'alua, Kanakaravu, Kavalan, Paiwan, Puyuma, Rukai, Saisiyat, Sakizaya, Seediq, Thao, Truku, Tsou, and Yami; Amis, Paiwan, and Atayal are the largest and account for roughly 70% of the indigenous population note 2: although not definitive, the majority of current genetic, archeological, and linguistic data support the theory that Taiwan is the ultimate source for the spread of humans across the Pacific to Polynesia; the expansion (ca. 3000 B.C. to A.D. 1200) took place via the Philippines and eastern Indonesia and reached Fiji and Tonga by about 900 B.C.; from there voyagers spread across all of the rest of the Pacific islands over the next two millennia
Languages: Mandarin Chinese (official), Taiwanese (Min Nan), Hakka dialects, approximately 16 indigenous languages
Religions: Buddhist 35.3%, Taoist 33.2%, Christian 3.9%, folk (includes Confucian) approximately 10%, none or unspecified 18.2% (2005 est.)
Population: 23,545,963 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 12.68% (male 1,535,365 /female 1,449,336)
15-24 years: 12.52% (male 1,509,023 /female 1,438,278)
25-54 years: 46.08% (male 5,412,487 /female 5,437,015)
55-64 years: 14.36% (male 1,652,683 /female 1,729,571)
65 years and over: 14.36% (male 1,541,716 /female 1,840,489) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 35.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 18.6 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 16.6 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 6 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 41.3 years
male: 40.5 years
female: 42 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.15% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 8.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 78.2% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.8% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 4.325 million New Taipei City
2.706 million TAIPEI (capital)
2.19 million Taiyuan
1.532 million Kaohsiung
1.283 million Taichung
836,000 Tainan (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births male: 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80.4 years male: 77.2 years
female: 83.7 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.13 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: n/a
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: n/a
HIV/AIDS - deaths: n/a
Education expenditures: n/a
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2014 est.)
total population: 98.5%
male: 99.7%
female: 97.3% (2014 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Taiwan
local long form: none
local short form: Taiwan
former: Formosa
etymology: "Tayowan" was the name of the coastal sandbank where the Dutch erected their colonial headquarters on the island in the 17th century; the former name "Formosa" means "beautiful" in Portuguese
Government type: semi-presidential republic
Capital: name: Taipei
geographic coordinates: 25 02 N, 121 31 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: includes main island of Taiwan plus smaller islands nearby and off coast of China's Fujian Province; Taiwan is divided into 13 counties (xian, singular and plural), 3 cities (shi, singular and plural), and 6 special municipalities directly under the jurisdiction of the Executive Yuan counties: Changhua, Chiayi, Hsinchu, Hualien, Kinmen, Lienchiang, Miaoli, Nantou, Penghu, Pingtung, Taitung, Yilan, Yunlin; cities: Chiayi, Hsinchu, Keelung; special municipalities: Kaohsiung (city), New Taipei (city), Taichung (city), Tainan (city), Taipei (city), Taoyuan (city)

note: Taiwan uses a variety of romanization systems; while a modified Wade-Giles system still dominates, the city of Taipei has adopted a Pinyin romanization for street and place names within its boundaries; other local authorities use different romanization systems
National holiday: Republic Day (National Day), 10 October (1911); note - celebrates the anniversary of the Chinese Revolution, also known as Double Ten (10-10) Day
Constitution: history: previous 1912, 1931; latest adopted 25 December 1946, promulgated 1 January 1947, effective 25 December 1947 amendments: proposed by at least one-fourth agreement of the Legislative Yuan membership; passage requires approval by at least three-fourths majority vote of at least three-fourths of the Legislative Yuan membership and approval in a referendum by more than half of eligible voters; revised several times, last in 2005 (2017)
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal; note - in mid-2016, the Legislative Yuan drafted a constitutional amendment to reduce the voting age to 18, but it has not passed as of December 2017
Executive branch: chief of state: President TSAI Ing-wen (since 20 May 2016); Vice President CHEN Chien-jen (since 20 May 2016)

head of government: Premier SU Tseng-chang (President of the Executive Yuan) (since 11 January 2019); Vice Premier SHIH Jun-ji, Vice President of the Executive Yuan (since 8 September 2017)

cabinet: Executive Yuan - ministers appointed by president on recommendation of premier elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 January 2016 (next to be held on 11 January 2020); premier appointed by the president; vice premiers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the premier

election results: TSAI Ing-wen elected president; percent of vote - TSAI Ing-wen (DPP) 56.1%, Eric CHU Li-lun (KMT) 31.0%, James SOONG Chu-yu (PFP) 12.8%; note - TSAI is the first woman elected president of Taiwan
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Legislative Yuan (113 seats; 73 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 34 directly elected in a single island-wide constituency by proportional representation vote, and 6 directly elected in multi-seat aboriginal constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 16 January 2016 (next to be held on 11 January 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DPP 68, KMT 35, NPP 5, PFP 3, NPSU 1, independent 1; composition - men 70, women 43, percent of women 38.1%; note - this is the first non-KMT-led legislature in Taiwan's history
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and approximately 100 judges organized into 8 civil and 12 criminal divisions, each with a division chief justice and 4 associate justices); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 13 justices) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices appointed by the president; Constitutional Court justices appointed by the president, with approval of the Legislative Yuan; Supreme Court justices serve for life; Constitutional Court justices appointed for 8-year terms, with half the membership renewed every 4 years

subordinate courts: high courts; district courts; hierarchy of administrative courts
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [CHO Jung-tai] Kuomintang or KMT (Nationalist Party) [WU Den-yih] New Power Party or NPP [CHIU Hsien-chih] Non-Partisan Solidarity Union or NPSU [LIN Pin-kuan] People First Party or PFP [James SOONG Chu-yu]
International organization participation: ADB (Taipei, China), APEC (Chinese Taipei), BCIE, IOC, ITUC (NGOs), SICA (observer), WTO (Taipei, China); note - separate customs territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu
National symbol(s): white, 12-rayed sun on blue field;
national colors: blue, white, red
National anthem: name: "Zhonghua Minguo guoge" (National Anthem of the Republic of China)
lyrics/music: HU Han-min, TAI Chi-t'ao, and LIAO Chung-k'ai/CHENG Mao-Yun

note: adopted 1930; also the song of the Kuomintang Party; it is informally known as "San Min Chu I" or "San Min Zhu Yi" (Three Principles of the People); because of political pressure from China, "Guo Qi Ge" (National Banner Song) is used at international events rather than the official anthem of Taiwan; the "National Banner Song" has gained popularity in Taiwan and is commonly used during flag raisings
Diplomatic representation in the US:
telephone: [1] 202 895-1800 office: 4201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016 representative: Stanley KAO (since 5 June 2016) Taipei Economic and Cultural Offices (branch offices): Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver (CO), Houston, Honolulu, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Seattle none; commercial and cultural relations with its citizens in the US are maintained through an unofficial instrumentality, the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States (TECRO), a private nonprofit corporation that performs citizen and consular services similar to those at diplomatic posts
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Director William Brent CHRISTENSEN (since 11 August 2018)
telephone: [886] 7-335-5006
FAX: [886] 7-338-0551 office: #7 Lane 134, Hsin Yi Road, Section 3, Taipei 10659, Taiwan other offices: Kaohsiung (Branch Office) none; commercial and cultural relations with the people of Taiwan are maintained through an unofficial instrumentality, the American Institute in Taiwan (AIT), a private nonprofit corporation that performs citizen and consular services similar to those at diplomatic posts
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Taiwan has a dynamic capitalist economy that is driven largely by industrial manufacturing, and especially exports of electronics, machinery, and petrochemicals. This heavy dependence on exports exposes the economy to fluctuations in global demand. Taiwan's diplomatic isolation, low birth rate, rapidly aging population, and increasing competition from China and other Asia Pacific markets are other major long-term challenges. Following the landmark Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA) signed with China in June 2010, Taiwan in July 2013 signed a free trade deal with New Zealand - Taipei’s first-ever with a country with which it does not maintain diplomatic relations - and, in November of that year, inked a trade pact with Singapore. However, follow-on components of the ECFA, including a signed agreement on trade in services and negotiations on trade in goods and dispute resolution, have stalled. In early 2014, the government bowed to public demand and proposed a new law governing the oversight of cross-Strait agreements, before any additional deals with China are implemented; the legislature has yet to vote on such legislation, leaving the future of ECFA uncertain. President TSAI since taking office in May 2016 has promoted greater economic integration with South and Southeast Asia through the New Southbound Policy initiative and has also expressed interest in Taiwan joining the Trans-Pacific Partnership as well as bilateral trade deals with partners such as the US. These overtures have likely played a role in increasing Taiwan’s total exports, which rose 11% during the first half of 2017, buoyed by strong demand for semiconductors. Taiwan's total fertility rate of just over one child per woman is among the lowest in the world, raising the prospect of future labor shortages, falling domestic demand, and declining tax revenues. Taiwan's population is aging quickly, with the number of people over 65 expected to account for nearly 20% of the island's total population by 2025. The island runs a trade surplus with many economies, including China and the US, and its foreign reserves are the world's fifth largest, behind those of China, Japan, Saudi Arabia, and Switzerland. In 2006, China overtook the US to become Taiwan's second-largest source of imports after Japan. China is also the island's number one destination for foreign direct investment. Taiwan since 2009 has gradually loosened rules governing Chinese investment and has also secured greater market access for its investors on the mainland. In August 2012, the Taiwan Central Bank signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on cross-Strait currency settlement with its Chinese counterpart. The MOU allows for the direct settlement of Chinese renminbi (RMB) and the New Taiwan dollar across the Strait, which has helped Taiwan develop into a local RMB hub. Closer economic links with the mainland bring opportunities for Taiwan’s economy but also pose challenges as political differences remain unresolved and China’s economic growth is slowing. President TSAI’s administration has made little progress on the domestic economic issues that loomed large when she was elected, including concerns about stagnant wages, high housing prices, youth unemployment, job security, and financial security in retirement. TSAI has made more progress on boosting trade with South and Southeast Asia, which may help insulate Taiwan’s economy from a fall in mainland demand should China’s growth slow in 2018.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.189 trillion (2017 est.) $1.156 trillion (2016 est.) $1.14 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $572.6 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.9% (2017 est.) 1.4% (2016 est.) 0.8% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $50,500 (2017 est.) $49,100 (2016 est.) $48,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 34.9% of GDP (2017 est.) 35.5% of GDP (2016 est.) 36.3% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 53% (2017 est.) government consumption: 14.1% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 20.5% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: -0.2% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 65.2% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -52.6% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 1.8% (2017 est.) industry: 36% (2017 est.) services: 62.1% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, vegetables, fruit, tea, flowers; pigs, poultry; fish
Industries: electronics, communications and information technology products, petroleum refining, chemicals, textiles, iron and steel, machinery, cement, food processing, vehicles, consumer products, pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate: 3.9% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 11.78 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 4.9%
industry: 35.9%
services: 59.2% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate: 3.8% (2017 est.) 3.9% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 1.5% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 6.4% (2010)
highest 10%: 40.3% (2010)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 33.6 (2014) 32.6 (2000)
Budget: revenues: 91.62 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 92.03 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 16% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -0.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 35.7% of GDP (2017 est.) 36.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data for central government
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.1% (2017 est.) 1% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $82.88 billion (2017 est.) $72.78 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $349.8 billion (2017 est.) $310.4 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: semiconductors, petrochemicals, automobile/auto parts, ships, wireless communication equipment, flat display displays, steel, electronics, plastics, computers
Imports: $269 billion (2017 est.) $239.3 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: oil/petroleum, semiconductors, natural gas, coal, steel, computers, wireless communication equipment, automobiles, fine chemicals, textiles
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $456.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $439 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $181.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $172.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $78.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $80.68 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $332.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $354 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $851.2 billion (31 December 2016) $742.5 billion (31 December 2015) $848.3 billion (31 December 2014)
Exchange rates: New Taiwan dollars (TWD) per US dollar - 30.68 (2017 est.) 32.325 (2016 est.) 32.325 (2015 est.) 31.911 (2014 est.) 30.363 (2013 est.)
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Electricity - production: 246.1 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 237.4 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 49.52 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 79% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 11% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 4% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 6% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 196 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 846,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 2.38 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 924,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 962,400 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 349,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 418,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 237.9 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 22.45 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 22.14 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 6.229 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 348.8 million Mt (2017 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 28,777,408
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 122 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: good telecommunications infrastructure and competitive mobile market; Taiwan has a stable regulatory system and an educated workforce building on availability of fixed and mobile broadband networks; fixed-line will decline in the next 5 years; 5 mobile network operators; 4G LTE and trials on 5G (2018)

domestic: fixed-line 48 per 100 and mobile-cellular 124 per 100 (2018)

international: country code - 886; roughly 15 submarine fiber cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2
Broadcast media: 5 nationwide television networks operating roughly 22 TV stations; more than 300 satellite TV channels are available; about 60% of households utilize multi-channel cable TV; 99.9% of households subscribe to digital cable TV; national and regional radio networks with about 171 radio stations (2019)
Internet country code: .tw
Internet users: total: 20.601 million
percent of population: 88% (July 2016 est.)
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Airports: 37 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 35
(2013) over 3,047 m: 8 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 8 (2013)
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports: 31 (2013)
Pipelines: 25 km condensate, 2,200 km gas, 13,500 km oil (2018)
Railways: total 1,613 km
(2018) standard gauge: 345 km 1.435-m gauge (345 km electrified) (2018)
narrow gauge: 1,118.1 km 1.067-m gauge (793.9 km electrified) (2018) 150 0.762-m gauge

note: the 0.762-gauge track belongs to three entities: the Forestry Bureau, Taiwan Cement, and TaiPower
Roadways: total 43,206 km
(2017) paved: 42,793 km (includes 1,348 km of highways and 737 km of expressways) (2017)
unpaved: 413 km (2017)
Merchant marine: total 267

by type: bulk carrier 18, container ship 59, general cargo 60, oil tanker 19, other 111 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Keelung (Chi-lung), Kaohsiung, Hualian, Taichung container port(s) (TEUs): Kaohsiung (10,271,018), Taichung (1,660,663), Taipei (1,561,743) (2017) LNG terminal(s) (import): Yung An (Kaohsiung), Taichung
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Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps), Air Force, Military Police Command, Armed Forces Reserve Command (2019)
Military service age and obligation: starting with those born in 1994, males 18-36 years of age may volunteer for military service or must complete 4 months of compulsory military training (or substitute civil service in some cases); men born before December 1993 are required to complete compulsory service for 1 year (military or civil); men are subject to training recalls up to four times for periods not to exceed 20 days for 8 years after discharge; women may enlist, but are restricted to noncombat roles in most cases; as part of its transition to an all-volunteer military in December 2018, the last cohort of one-year military conscripts completed their service obligations (2019)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: involved in complex dispute with Brunei, China, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Vietnam over the Spratly Islands, and with China and the Philippines over Scarborough Reef; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Paracel Islands are occupied by China, but claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam; in 2003, China and Taiwan became more vocal in rejecting both Japan's claims to the uninhabited islands of the Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japan's unilaterally declared exclusive economic zone in the East China Sea where all parties engage in hydrocarbon prospecting
Illicit drugs: regional transit point for heroin, methamphetamine, and precursor chemicals; transshipment point for drugs to Japan; major problem with domestic consumption of methamphetamine and heroin; rising problems with use of ketamine and club drugs
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