Tanzania Population: 55,451,343


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Shortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the United Republic of Tanzania in 1964. In 1995, the country held its first democratic elections since the 1970s. Zanzibar maintains semi-autonomy and participates in national elections; popular political opposition on the isles led to four contentious elections since 1995, in which the ruling party claimed victory despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities.

    Kilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa and one of only two mountains on the continent that has glaciers (the other is Mount Kenya); bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) in the southwest
Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 35 00 E
Area: total: 947,300 sq km
land: 885,800 sq km
water: 61,500 sq km

note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar

Size comparison: more than six times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than twice the size of California
Land Boundaries: total: 4,161 km border countries (8): Burundi 589 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 479 km, Kenya 775 km, Malawi 512 km, Mozambique 840 km, Rwanda 222 km, Uganda 391 km, Zambia 353 km
Coastline: 1,424 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
Terrain: plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
Natural resources: hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
Land use: agricultural land: 43.7% (2011 est.) arable land: 14.3% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 2.3% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 27.1% (2011 est.) forest: 37.3% (2011 est.)
other: 19% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 1,840 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought volcanism: limited volcanic activity; Ol Doinyo Lengai (2,962 m) has emitted lava in recent years; other historically active volcanoes include Kieyo and Meru
Current Environment Issues: water polution; improper management of liquid waste; indoor air pollution caused by the burning of fuel wood or charcoal for cooking and heating is a large environmental health issue; soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory; loss of biodiversity; solid waste disposal
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian
Ethnic groups: mainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African
Languages: Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources including Arabic and English; it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages
Religions: Christian 61.4%, Muslim 35.2%, folk religion 1.8%, other 0.2%, unaffiliated 1.4% (2010 est.)

note: Zanzibar is almost entirely Muslim
Population: 55,451,343 (July 2018 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 43.4% (male 12,159,482 /female 11,908,654)
15-24 years: 20.03% (male 5,561,922 /female 5,543,788)
25-54 years: 30.02% (male 8,361,460 /female 8,284,229)
55-64 years: 3.51% (male 872,601 /female 1,074,480)
65 years and over: 3.04% (male 706,633 /female 978,094) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 93.4 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 87.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 6 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 16.6 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 17.9 years
male: 17.6 years
female: 18.2 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.74% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 35.3 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 33.8% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 5.22% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 6.048 million DAR ES SALAAM (administrative capital)
1.003 million Mwanza
262,000 Dodoma (legislative capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.81 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 19.8 years (2015/16 est.) note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Maternal mortality rate: 398 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 38.7 deaths/1,000 live births male: 40.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 36.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.1 years male: 61.6 years
female: 64.6 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.71 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 38.4% (2015/16)
Physicians density: 0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density: 0.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 77.2% of population
rural: 45.5% of population
total: 55.6% of population

urban: 22.8% of population
rural: 54.5% of population
total: 44.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 31.3% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 8.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 15.6% of population (2015 est.)

urban: 68.7% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 91.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 84.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 4.5% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1.5 million (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 32,000 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 8.4% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 13.7% (2015)
Education expenditures: 3.5% of GDP (2014)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic (2015 est.)
total population: 77.9%
male: 83.2%
female: 73.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 8 years male: 8 years female: 8 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 3.9% male: 3.1% female: 4.6% (2014 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
local long form: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
local short form: Tanzania
former: German East Africa, Trust Territory of Tanganyika, United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
etymology: the country's name is a combination of the first letters of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the two states that merged to form Tanzania in 1964
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Dar es Salaam (administrative capital), Dodoma (legislative capital); note - Dodoma was designated the national capital in 1996 and serves as the meeting place for the National Assembly; Dar es Salaam remains the de facto capital, the country's largest city and commercial center, and the site of the executive branch offices and diplomatic representation; the government contends that it will complete the transfer of the executive branch to Dodoma by 2020
geographic coordinates: 6 48 S, 39 17 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 31 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Geita, Iringa, Kagera, Kaskazini Pemba (Pemba North), Kaskazini Unguja (Zanzibar North), Katavi, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Kusini Pemba (Pemba South), Kusini Unguja (Zanzibar Central/South), Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Mjini Magharibi (Zanzibar Urban/West), Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Njombe, Pwani (Coast), Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Simiyu, Singida, Songwe, Tabora, Tanga
Independence: 26 April 1964 (Tanganyika united with Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar); 29 October 1964 (renamed United Republic of Tanzania);

notable earlier dates: 9 December 1961 (Tanganyika became independent from UK-administered UN trusteeship); 10 December 1963 (Zanzibar became independent from UK)
National holiday: Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)
Constitution: history: several previous; latest adopted 25 April 1977; note - progress enacting a new constitution drafted in 2014 by the Constituent Assembly has been stalled amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage of amendments to constitutional articles including those on sovereignty of the United Republic, the authorities and powers of the government, the president, the Assembly, and the High Court requires two-thirds majority vote of the mainland Assembly membership and of the Zanzibar House of Representatives membership; House of Representatives approval of other amendments is not required (2017)
Legal system: English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President John MAGUFULI, Dr. (since 5 November 2015); Vice President Samia SULUHU (since 5 November 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President John MAGUFULI, Dr. (since 5 November 2015); Vice President Samia SULUHU (since 5 November 2015); note - Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa MAJALIWA (since 20 November 2015) has authority over the day-to-day functions of the government, is the leader of government business in the National Assembly, and is head of the Cabinet

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2020); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: John MAGUFULI elected president; percent of vote - John MAGUFULI (CCM) 58.5%, Edward LOWASSA (CHADEMA) 40%, other 1.5%

note: Zanzibar elects a president as head of government for internal matters; election held on 25 October 2015 was annulled by the Zanzibar Electoral Commission and rerun on 20 March 2016; President Ali Mohamed SHEIN reelected; percent of vote - Ali Mohamed SHEIN (CCM) 91.4%, Hamad Rashid MOHAMED (ADC) 3%, other 5.6%; the main opposition party in Zanzibar CUF boycotted the 20 March 2016 election rerun
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (Bunge) (393 seats; 264 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 113 women indirectly elected by proportional representation vote, 5 indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the Zanzibar House of Representatives, 10 appointed by the president, and 1 seat reserved for the attorney general; members serve a 5-year term); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the National Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives or Baraza La Wawakilishi (82 seats; 50 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 20 women directly elected by proportional representation vote, 10 appointed by the Zanzibar president, 1 seat for the House speaker, and 1 ex-officio seat for the attorney general; elected members serve a 5-year term)

elections: Tanzania National Assembly and Zanzibar House of Representatives - elections last held on 25 October 2015 (next National Assembly election to be held in October 2020; next Zanzibar election either October 2020 or March 2021); note the Zanzibar Electoral Commission annulled the 2015 election; repoll held on 20 March 2016

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CCM 55%, Chadema 31.8%, CUF 8.6%, other 4.6%; seats by party - CCM 253, Chadema 70, CUF 42, other 2; composition as of September 2018 - men 245, women 145, percent of women 37.2% Zanzibar House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - NA
Judicial branch: highest courts: Court of Appeal of the United Republic of Tanzania (consists of the chief justice and 14 justices); High Court of the United Republic for Mainland Tanzania (consists of the principal judge and 30 judges organized into commercial, land, and labor courts); High Court of Zanzibar (consists of the chief justice and 10 justices) judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court justices appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission for Tanzania, a judicial body of high level judges and 2 members appointed by the national president; Court of Appeal and High Court judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 60, but terms can be extended; High Court of Zanzibar judges appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Commission of Zanzibar; judges can serve until mandatory retirement at age 65

subordinate courts: Resident Magistrates Courts; Kadhi courts (for Islamic family matters); district and primary courts
Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Change and Transparency (Wazalendo) or ACT [Zitto KABWE] Alliance for Democratic Change or ADC [Miraji ABDALLAH] Civic United Front (Chama Cha Wananchi) or CUF [Ibrahim LIPUMBA] National Convention for Construction and Reform-Mageuzi or NCCR-M [James Francis MBATIA] National League for Democracy Party of Democracy and Development (Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo) or Chadema [Freeman MBOWE] Revolutionary Party (Chama Cha Mapinduzi) or CCM [John MAGUFULI] Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine MREMA] United Democratic Party or UDP [John Momose CHEYO] note: in March 2014, four opposition parties (CUF, CHADEMA, NCCR-Mageuzi, and NLD) united to form Coalition for the People's Constitution (Umoja wa Katiba ya Wananchi) or UKAWA; during local elections held in October, 2014, UKAWA entered one candidate representing the three parties united in the coalition
National symbol(s): Uhuru (Freedom) torch, giraffe;
national colors: green, yellow, blue, black
National anthem: name: "Mungu ibariki Afrika" (God Bless Africa)
lyrics/music: collective/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA

note: adopted 1961; the anthem, which is also a popular song in Africa, shares the same melody with that of Zambia but has different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Wilson Mutagaywa MASILINGI (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 1232 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Inmi PATTERSON (since 5 July 2017)
embassy: 686 Old Bagamoyo Road, Msasani, Dar es Salaam
mailing address: P.O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone: [255] (22) 229-4000
FAX: [255] (22) 229-4970 or 4971
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Tanzania has achieved high growth rates based on its vast natural resource wealth and tourism with GDP growth in 2009-17 averaging 6%-7% per year. Dar es Salaam used fiscal stimulus measures and easier monetary policies to lessen the impact of the global recession and in general, benefited from low oil prices. Tanzania has largely completed its transition to a market economy, though the government retains a presence in sectors such as telecommunications, banking, energy, and mining. The economy depends on agriculture, which accounts for slightly less than one-quarter of GDP and employs about 65% of the work force, although gold production in recent years has increased to about 35% of exports. All land in Tanzania is owned by the government, which can lease land for up to 99 years. Proposed reforms to allow for land ownership, particularly foreign land ownership, remain unpopular. The financial sector in Tanzania has expanded in recent years and foreign-owned banks account for about 48% of the banking industry's total assets. Competition among foreign commercial banks has resulted in significant improvements in the efficiency and quality of financial services, though interest rates are still relatively high, reflecting high fraud risk. Banking reforms have helped increase private-sector growth and investment. The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's aging infrastructure, including rail and port, which provide important trade links for inland countries. In 2013, Tanzania completed the world's largest Millennium Challenge Compact (MCC) grant, worth $698 million, but in late 2015, the MCC Board of Directors deferred a decision to renew Tanzania’s eligibility because of irregularities in voting in Zanzibar and concerns over the government's use of a controversial cybercrime bill. The new government elected in 2015 has developed an ambitious development agenda focused on creating a better business environment through improved infrastructure, access to financing, and education progress, but implementing budgets remains challenging for the government. Recent policy moves by President MAGUFULI are aimed at protecting domestic industry and have caused concern among foreign investors.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $162.5 billion (2017 est.) $153.3 billion (2016 est.) $143.3 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $51.76 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6% (2017 est.) 7% (2016 est.) 7% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,200 (2017 est.) $3,100 (2016 est.) $3,000 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 25% of GDP (2017 est.) 23.1% of GDP (2016 est.) 24.9% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 62.4% (2017 est.) government consumption: 12.5% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 36.1% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: -8.7% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 18.1% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -20.5% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 23.4% (2017 est.) industry: 28.6% (2017 est.) services: 47.6% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries: agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine); mining (diamonds, gold, and iron), salt, soda ash; cement, oil refining, shoes, apparel, wood products, fertilizer
Industrial production growth rate: 12% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 24.89 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 66.9%
industry: 6.4%
services: 26.6% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate: 10.3% (2014 est.)
Population below poverty line: 22.8% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2007)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 37.6 (2007) 34.6 (2000)
Budget: revenues: 7.873 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 8.818 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 15.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -1.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 37% of GDP (2017 est.) 38% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.3% (2017 est.) 5.2% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.464 billion (2017 est.) -$2.137 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $4.971 billion (2017 est.) $5.697 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton
Exports - partners: India 21.8%, South Africa 17.9%, Kenya 8.8%, Switzerland 6.7%, Belgium 5.9%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 5.8%, China 4.8% (2017)
Imports: $7.869 billion (2017 est.) $8.464 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil
Imports - partners: India 16.5%, China 15.8%, UAE 9.2%, Saudi Arabia 7.9%, South Africa 5.1%, Japan 4.9%, Switzerland 4.4% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $5.301 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $4.067 billion (31 December 2016 est.) note: excludes gold
Debt - external: $17.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $15.21 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: n/a
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: n/a
Market value of publicly traded shares: $1.803 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $1.539 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $1.264 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates: Tanzanian shillings (TZS) per US dollar - 2,243.8 (2017 est.) 2,177.1 (2016 est.) 2,177.1 (2015 est.) 1,989.7 (2014 est.) 1,654 (2013 est.)
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Electricity - production: 6.699 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 5.682 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 102 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 1.457 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 55% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 40% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 6% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 72,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 67,830 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 3.115 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 3.115 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 6.513 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 14.57 million Mt (2017 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 39,953,860
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 74 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: telecommunications services are marginal; system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; 2 fixed-line operators and 8 operational mobile networks; unfortunate high tariffs on telecoms; mobile penetration is 83%; 3G/LTE services (2018)

domestic: fixed-line telephone network inadequate with less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular service, aided by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly and exceeds 74 telephones per 100 persons; trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital (2018)

international: country code - 255; landing point for the EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa with Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean)
Broadcast media: a state-owned TV station and multiple privately owned TV stations; state-owned national radio station supplemented by more than 40 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2019)
Internet country code: .tz
Internet users: total: 6,822,754
percent of population: 13% (July 2016 est.)
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Airports: 166 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 10
(2013) over 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 156
(2013) over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 98 (2013)
under 914 m: 33 (2013)
Pipelines: 311 km gas, 891 km oil, 8 km refined products (2013)
Railways: total 4,567 km
narrow gauge: 1,860 km 1.067-m gauge (2014) 2707 1.000-m gauge
Roadways: total 87,581 km
(2015) paved: 10,025 km (2015)
unpaved: 77,556 km (2015)
Waterways: (Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) are the principal avenues of commerce with neighboring countries; the rivers are not navigable) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 329

by type: bulk carrier 6, container ship 9, general cargo 184, oil tanker 41, other 89 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar
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Military branches: Tanzania People's Defense Force (Jeshi la Wananchi la Tanzania, JWTZ): Army, Naval Wing (includes Coast Guard), Air Defense Command (includes Air Wing), National Service (2007)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.14% of GDP (2016) 1.13% of GDP (2015) 1.05% of GDP (2014) 1% of GDP (2013) 0.93% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River; Malawi contends that the entire lake up to the Tanzanian shoreline is its territory, while Tanzania claims the border is in the center of the lake; the conflict was reignited in 2012 when Malawi awarded a license to a British company for oil exploration in the lake
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 183,707 (Burundi), 79,463 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2019)
Illicit drugs: targeted by traffickers moving hashish, Afghan heroin, and South American cocaine transported down the East African coastline, through airports, or overland through Central Africa; Zanzibar likely used by traffickers for drug smuggling; traffickers in the past have recruited Tanzanian couriers to move drugs through Iran into East Asia
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