Colombia Population: 48,168,996

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 History
Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged after the dissolution of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and Venezuela). A decades-long conflict between government forces, paramilitaries, and antigovernment insurgent groups heavily funded by the drug trade, principally the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), escalated during the 1990s. More than 31,000 former United Self Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) paramilitaries demobilized by the end of 2006, and the AUC as a formal organization ceased to operate. In the wake of the paramilitary demobilization, illegal armed groups arose, whose members include some former paramilitaries. After four years of formal peace negotiations, the Colombian Government signed a final peace accord with the FARC in November 2016, which was subsequently ratified by the Colombian Congress. The accord calls for members of the FARC to demobilize, disarm, and reincorporate into society and politics. The accord also committed the Colombian Government to create three new institutions to form a 'comprehensive system for truth, justice, reparation, and non-repetition,' to include a truth commission, a special unit to coordinate the search for those who disappeared during the conflict, and a 'Special Jurisdiction for Peace' to administer justice for conflict-related crimes. The Colombian Government has stepped up efforts to expand its presence into every one of its administrative departments. Despite decades of internal conflict and drug-related security challenges, Colombia maintains relatively strong democratic institutions characterized by peaceful, transparent elections and the protection of civil liberties.

 Geography
    Only South American country with coastlines on both the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea
Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama
Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 72 00 W
Area: total: 1,138,910 sq km
land: 1,038,700 sq km
water: 100,210 sq km

note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, and Serrana Bank

Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 6,672 km border countries (5): Brazil 1790 km, Ecuador 708 km, Panama 339 km, Peru 1494 km, Venezuela 2341 km
Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains (Llanos)
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 37.5% (2011 est.) arable land: 1.4% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 1.6% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 34.5% (2011 est.) forest: 54.4% (2011 est.)
other: 8.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 10,900 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts volcanism: Galeras (4,276 m) is one of Colombia's most active volcanoes, having erupted in 2009 and 2010 causing major evacuations; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Nevado del Ruiz (5,321 m), 129 km (80 mi) west of Bogota, erupted in 1985 producing lahars (mudflows) that killed 23,000 people; the volcano last erupted in 1991; additionally, after 500 years of dormancy, Nevado del Huila reawakened in 2007 and has experienced frequent eruptions since then; other historically active volcanoes include Cumbal, Dona Juana, Nevado del Tolima, and Purace
Current Environment Issues: deforestation resulting from timber exploitation in the jungles of the Amazon and the region of Chocó; illicit drug crops grown by peasants in the national parks; soil erosion; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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 People
Nationality: noun: Colombian(s)
adjective: Colombian
Ethnic groups: mestizo and white 84.2%, Afro-Colombian (includes mulatto, Raizal, and Palenquero) 10.4%, Amerindian 3.4%, Romani (2005 est.)
Languages: Spanish (official)
Religions: Roman Catholic 79%, Protestant 14% (includes Pentecostal 6%, mainline Protestant 2%, other 6%), other 2%, unspecified 5% (2014 est.)
Population: 48,168,996 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 23.89% (male 5,895,637 /female 5,611,298)
15-24 years: 16.96% (male 4,161,661 /female 4,006,875)
25-54 years: 41.98% (male 10,043,080 /female 10,177,042)
55-64 years: 9.44% (male 2,145,031 /female 2,404,090)
65 years and over: 7.73% (male 1,555,848 /female 2,168,434) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 45.6 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 35.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 10.2 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 9.8 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 30.4 years
male: 29.4 years
female: 31.4 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.97% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 15.8 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 5.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 80.8% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.22% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 10.574 million BOGOTA (capital)
3.934 million Medellin
2.726 million Cali
2.218 million Barranquilla
1.295 million Bucaramanga
1.047 million Cartagena (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 21.7 years (2015 est.) note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Maternal mortality rate: 64 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 13.2 deaths/1,000 live births male: 16 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.2 years male: 73 years
female: 79.5 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.98 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 81% (2015/16)
Physicians density: 2.08 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density: 1.5 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 96.8% of population
rural: 73.8% of population
total: 91.4% of population

unimproved:
urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 26.2% of population
total: 8.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 85.2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 67.9% of population (2015 est.)
total: 81.1% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 14.8% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 32.1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 18.9% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.5% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 150,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,400 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 22.3% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 3.4% (2010)
Education expenditures: 4.4% of GDP (2017)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2016 est.)
total population: 94.7%
male: 94.4%
female: 94.9% (2016 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years male: 14 years female: 15 years (2017)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 18.7% male: 14.7% female: 24.1% (2018 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
conventional short form: Colombia
local long form: Republica de Colombia
local short form: Colombia
etymology: the country is named after explorer Christopher COLUMBUS
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Bogota
geographic coordinates: 4 36 N, 74 05 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: originally referred to as "Bacata," meaning "enclosure outside of the farm fields," by the indigenous Muisca
Administrative divisions: 32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, Archipielago de San Andres, Providencia y Santa Catalina (colloquially San Andres y Providencia), Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada
Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)
Constitution: history: several previous; latest promulgated 4 July 1991 amendments: proposed by the government, by Congress, by a constituent assembly, or by public petition; passage requires a majority vote by Congress in each of two consecutive sessions; passage of amendments to constitutional articles on citizen rights, guarantees, and duties also require approval in a referendum by over one-half of voters and participation of over one-fourth of citizens registered to vote; amended many times, last in 2018 (2018)
Legal system: civil law system influenced by the Spanish and French civil codes
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Ivan DUQUE Marquez (since 7 August 2018); Vice President Marta Lucia RAMIREZ Blanco (since 7 August 2018); the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Ivan DUQUE Marquez (since 7 August 2018); Vice President Marta Lucia RAMIREZ Blanco (since 7 August 2018)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term; election last held on 27 May 2018 with a runoff held on 17 June 2018 (next to be held in 2022); note - political reform in 2015 eliminated presidential reelection

election results: Ivan DUQUE Marquez elected president in second round; percent of vote - Ivan DUQUE Marquez (CD) 54%, Gustavo PETRO (Humane Colombia) 41.8%, other/blank/invalid 4.2%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of: Senate or Senado (108 seats; 100 members elected in a single nationwide constituency by party-list proportional representation vote, 2 members elected in a special nationwide constituency for indigenous communities, 5 members of the People's Alternative Revolutionary Force (FARC) political party for the 2018 and 2022 elections only as per the 2016 peace accord, and 1 seat reserved for the runner-up presidential candidate in the recent election; all members serve 4-year terms) Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (172 seats; 166 members elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote, 5 members of the FARC for the 2018 and 2022 elections only as per the 2016 peace accord, and 1 seat reserved for the runner-up vice presidential candidate in the recent election; all members serve 4-year terms)

elections:   Senate - last held on 11 March 2018 (next to be held in March 2022) Chamber of Representatives - last held on 11 March 2018 (next to be held in March 2022)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CD 19, CR 16, PC 15, PL 14, U Party 14, Green Alliance 10, PDA 5, other 9; composition - men 77, women 31, percent of women 28.7% Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PL 35, CD 32, CR 30, U Party 25, PC 21, Green Alliance 9, other 13; composition - men 147, women 25, percent of women 14.5%; total Congress percent of women 20%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of the Civil-Agrarian and Labor Chambers each with 7 judges, and the Penal Chamber with 9 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 magistrates); Council of State (consists of 27 judges); Superior Judiciary Council (consists of 13 magistrates) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Supreme Court members from candidates submitted by the Superior Judiciary Council; judges elected for individual 8-year terms; Constitutional Court magistrates - nominated by the president, by the Supreme Court, and elected by the Senate; judges elected for individual 8-year terms; Council of State members appointed by the State Council plenary from lists nominated by the Superior Judiciary Council

subordinate courts: Superior Tribunals (appellate courts for each of the judicial districts); regional courts; civil municipal courts; Superior Military Tribunal; first instance administrative courts
Political parties and leaders: Alternative Democratic Pole or PDA [Jorge Enrique ROBLEDO] Citizens Option (Opcion Ciudadana) or OC [Angel ALIRIO Moreno] (formerly known as the National Integration Party or PIN) Conservative Party or PC [Hernan ANDRADE] Democratic Center Party or CD [Alvaro URIBE Velez] Green Alliance [Claudia LOPEZ Hernandez] Humane Colombia [Gustavo PETRO] Liberal Party or PL [Cesar GAVIRIA] People's Alternative Revolutionary Force or FARC [Rodrigo LONDONO Echeverry] Radical Change or CR [Rodrigo LARA Restrepo] Social National Unity Party or U Party [Roy BARRERAS] note: Colombia has numerous smaller political movements
International organization participation: BCIE, BIS, CAN, Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CELAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-3, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): Andean condor;
national colors: yellow, blue, red
National anthem: name: "Himno Nacional de la Republica de Colombia" (National Anthem of the Republic of Colombia)
lyrics/music: Rafael NUNEZ/Oreste SINDICI

note: adopted 1920; the anthem was created from an inspirational poem written by President Rafael NUNEZ
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Francisco SANTOS Calderon (since 17 September 2018)
chancery: 1724 Massachusetts Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338
FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Newark (NJ), Orlando, San Juan (Puerto Rico) consulate(s): Boston, Chicago, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kevin WHITAKER (since 11 June 2014)
embassy: Carrera 45,No. 24B-27, Bogota, DC Colombia
mailing address: Carrera 45 No. 24B-27, Bogota, D.C.
telephone: [57] (1) 275-2000
FAX: [57] (1) 275-4600
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 Economy
Colombia heavily depends on energy and mining exports, making it vulnerable to fluctuations in commodity prices. Colombia is Latin America’s fourth largest oil producer and the world’s fourth largest coal producer, third largest coffee exporter, and second largest cut flowers exporter. Colombia’s economic development is hampered by inadequate infrastructure, poverty, narcotrafficking, and an uncertain security situation, in addition to dependence on primary commodities (goods that have little value-added from processing or labor inputs). Colombia’s economy slowed in 2017 because of falling world market prices for oil and lower domestic oil production due to insurgent attacks on pipeline infrastructure. Although real GDP growth averaged 4.7% during the past decade, it fell to an estimated 1.8% in 2017. Declining oil prices also have contributed to reduced government revenues. In 2016, oil revenue dropped below 4% of the federal budget and likely remained below 4% in 2017. A Western credit rating agency in December 2017 downgraded Colombia’s sovereign credit rating to BBB-, because of weaker-than-expected growth and increasing external debt. Colombia has struggled to address local referendums against foreign investment, which have slowed its expansion, especially in the oil and mining sectors. Colombia’s FDI declined by 3% to $10.2 billion between January and September 2017. Colombia has signed or is negotiating Free Trade Agreements (FTA) with more than a dozen countries; the US-Colombia FTA went into effect in May 2012. Colombia is a founding member of the Pacific Alliance—a regional trade block formed in 2012 by Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru to promote regional trade and economic integration. The Colombian government took steps in 2017 to address several bilateral trade irritants with the US, including those on truck scrappage, distilled spirits, pharmaceuticals, ethanol imports, and labor rights. Colombia hopes to accede to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $711.6 billion (2017 est.) $699.1 billion (2016 est.) $685.6 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $314.5 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.8% (2017 est.) 2% (2016 est.) 3% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $14,400 (2017 est.) $14,300 (2016 est.) $14,200 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 18.9% of GDP (2017 est.) 19% of GDP (2016 est.) 17.4% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 68.2% (2017 est.) government consumption: 14.8% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 22.2% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0.2% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 14.6% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -19.7% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 7.2% (2017 est.) industry: 30.8% (2017 est.) services: 62.1% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; shrimp; forest products
Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds
Industrial production growth rate: -2.2% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 25.76 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 17%
industry: 21%
services: 62% (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate: 9.3% (2017 est.) 9.2% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 28% (2017 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 39.6% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 51.1 (2015) 53.5 (2014)
Budget: revenues: 83.35 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 91.73 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 26.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -2.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 49.4% of GDP (2017 est.) 49.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (2017 est.) 7.5% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$10.36 billion (2017 est.) -$12.13 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $39.48 billion (2017 est.) $31.39 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum, coal, emeralds, coffee, nickel, cut flowers, bananas, apparel
Exports - partners: US 28.5%, Panama 8.6%, China 5.1% (2017)
Imports: $44.24 billion (2017 est.) $43.24 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity
Imports - partners: US 26.3%, China 19.3%, Mexico 7.5%, Brazil 5%, Germany 4.1% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $47.13 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $46.18 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $124.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $115 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $179.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $164.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $55.51 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $51.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $85.96 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $146.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $202.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Colombian pesos (COP) per US dollar - 2,957 (2017 est.) 3,055.3 (2016 est.) 3,055.3 (2015 est.) 2,001 (2014 est.) 2,001.1 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 74.92 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 68.25 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 460 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports: 378 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 16.89 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 29% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 69% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 853,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 726,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 1.665 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 303,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 333,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 56,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 57,170 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 10.02 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 10.08 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 48.14 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 113.9 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 95.59 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 62,222,011
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 130 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern system in many respects with a nationwide microwave radio relay system, a domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations, and a fiber-optic network linking 50 cities; the cable sector commands about half of the market by subscribers, with DSL having a declining share and with fiber-based broadband developing strongly; competition among the MVNO (mobile virtual network operator) sector has promoted 2.9 million subscribers as of mid-2018; though most infrastructure as yet is primarily in high-density urban areas (2018)

domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 15 per 100 persons; mobile cellular telephone subscribership is about 130 per 100 persons; competition among cellular service providers is resulting in falling local and international calling rates and contributing to the steep decline in the market share of fixed-line services (2018)

international: country code - 57; multiple submarine cable systems provide links to the US, parts of the Caribbean, and Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 10 (6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 3 fully digitalized international switching centers)
Broadcast media: combination of state-owned and privately owned broadcast media provide service; more than 500 radio stations and many national, regional, and local TV stations (2019)
Internet country code: .co
Internet users: total: 27,452,550
percent of population: 58.1% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 836 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 121
(2017) over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 39 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 53 (2017)
under 914 m: 18 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 715
(2013) over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 25 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 201 (2013)
under 914 m: 488 (2013)
Heliports: 3 (2013)
Pipelines: 4991 km gas, 6796 km oil, 3429 km refined products (2013)
Railways: total 2,141 km
(2015) standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge (2015)
narrow gauge: 1,991 km 0.914-m gauge (2015)
Roadways: total 206,500 km
(2016)
Waterways: 24,725 km (18,300 km navigable; the most important waterway, the River Magdalena, of which 1,488 km is navigable, is dredged regularly to ensure safe passage of cargo vessels and container barges) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 102

by type: general cargo 18, oil tanker 8, other 76 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Atlantic Ocean (Caribbean) - Cartagena, Santa Marta, Turbo oil terminal(s): Covenas offshore terminal container port(s) (TEUs): Cartagena (2,663,415) (2017)
river port(s): Barranquilla (Rio Magdalena) dry bulk cargo port(s): Puerto Bolivar (coal) Pacific Ocean - Buenaventura
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 Military
Military branches: National Army (Ejercito Nacional), Republic of Colombia Navy (Armada Republica de Colombia, ARC, includes Naval Aviation, Naval Infantry (Infanteria de Marina, IM), and Coast Guard), Colombian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Colombia, FAC) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18-24 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; service obligation is 18 months (2012)
Military expenditures: 3.5% of GDP (2018 est.) 3.1% of GDP (2017) 3.06% of GDP (2016) 3.12% of GDP (2015) 3.13% of GDP (2014)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in December 2007, ICJ allocated San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina islands to Colombia under 1928 Treaty but did not rule on 82 degrees W meridian as maritime boundary with Nicaragua; managed dispute with Venezuela over maritime boundary and Venezuelan-administered Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all neighboring borders and have caused Colombian citizens to flee mostly into neighboring countries; Colombia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Jamaica, and the US assert various claims to Bajo Nuevo and Serranilla Bank
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 681,396 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2019) IDPs: 7,816,472 (conflict between government and illegal armed groups and drug traffickers since 1985; about 300,000 new IDPs each year since 2000) (2019)
stateless persons: 11 (2018)
Illicit drugs: illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator with 188,000 hectares in coca cultivation in 2016, a 18% increase over 2015, producing a potential of 710 mt of pure cocaine; the world's largest producer of coca derivatives; supplies cocaine to nearly all of the US market and the great majority of other international drug markets; in 2016, the Colombian government reported manual eradication of 17,642 hectares; Colombia suspended aerial eradication in October 2015 making 2016 the first full year without aerial eradication; a significant portion of narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested in Colombia through the black market peso exchange; Colombia probably remains the second largest supplier of heroin to the US market; opium poppy cultivation was estimated to be 1,100 hectares in 2015, sufficient to potentially produce three metric tons of pure heroin
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