Germany Population: 80,457,737

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 History
As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation (after Russia), Germany is a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating world wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key western economic and security organizations, the EC (now the EU) and NATO, while the communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German reunification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring eastern productivity and wages up to western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro.

 Geography
    Strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea; most major rivers in Germany - the Rhine, Weser, Oder, Elbe - flow northward; the Danube, which originates in the Black Forest, flows eastward
Location: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark
Geographic coordinates: 51 00 N, 9 00 E
Area: total: 357,022 sq km
land: 348,672 sq km
water: 8,350 sq km

Size comparison: three times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Montana
Land Boundaries: total: 3,714 km border countries (9): Austria 801 km, Belgium 133 km, Czech Republic 704 km, Denmark 140 km, France 418 km, Luxembourg 128 km, Netherlands 575 km, Poland 467 km, Switzerland 348 km
Coastline: 2,389 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind
Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Natural resources: coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 48% (2011 est.) arable land: 34.1% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0.6% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 13.3% (2011 est.) forest: 31.8% (2011 est.)
other: 20.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 6,500 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: flooding
Current Environment Issues: emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power by 2022; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: German(s)
adjective: German
Ethnic groups: German 87.2%, Turkish 1.8%, Polish 1%, Syrian 1%, other 9% (2017 est.) note:   data represent population by nationality
Languages: German (official) note: Danish, Frisian, Sorbian, and Romani are official minority languages; Low German, Danish, North Frisian, Sater Frisian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, and Romani are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
Religions: Roman Catholic 28.2%, Protestant 26%, Muslim 5%, Orthodox 1.9%, other Christian 1.1%, other .9%, none 37% (2017 est.)
Population: 80,457,737 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 12.83% (male 5,299,798 /female 5,024,184)
15-24 years: 9.98% (male 4,092,901 /female 3,933,997)
25-54 years: 39.87% (male 16,181,931 /female 15,896,528)
55-64 years: 14.96% (male 5,989,111 /female 6,047,449)
65 years and over: 22.36% (male 7,930,590 /female 10,061,248) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 52.1 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 19.9 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 32.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 3.1 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 47.4 years
male: 46.2 years
female: 48.5 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.17% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 8.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 11.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 77.3% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.27% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 3.563 million BERLIN (capital)
1.793 million Hamburg
1.504 million Munich
1.096 million Cologne (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 29.4 years (2015 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 6 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80.9 years male: 78.6 years
female: 83.4 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.46 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 80.3% (2011) note: percent of women aged 18-49
Physicians density: 4.21 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density: 8.3 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 99.3% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 99% of population (2015 est.)
total: 99.2% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 0.7% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 91,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <500 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 22.3% (2016)
Education expenditures: 4.8% of GDP (2015)
Literacy:
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 17 years male: 17 years female: 17 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 6.8% male: 7.6% female: 5.8% (2017 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany
conventional short form: Germany
local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland
local short form: Deutschland
former: German Reich
etymology: the Gauls (Celts) of Western Europe may have referred to the newly arriving Germanic tribes who settled in neighboring areas east of the Rhine during the first centuries B.C. as "Germani," a term the Romans adopted as "Germania"; the native designation "Deutsch" comes from the Old High German "diutisc" meaning "of the people"
Government type: federal parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Berlin
geographic coordinates: 52 31 N, 13 24 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: the origin of the name is unclear but may be related to the old West Slavic (Polabian) word "berl" or "birl," meaning "swamp"
Administrative divisions: 16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern (Bavaria), Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen (Hesse), Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia), Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate), Saarland, Sachsen (Saxony), Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen (Thuringia); note - Bayern, Sachsen, and Thueringen refer to themselves as free states (Freistaaten, singular - Freistaat), while Hamburg considers itself a Free and Hanseatic City (Freie und Hansestadt)
Independence: 18 January 1871 (establishment of the German Empire); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed on 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed on 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; West Germany and East Germany unified on 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights on 15 March 1991;

notable earlier dates: 10 August 843 (Eastern Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 2 February 962 (crowning of OTTO I, recognized as the first Holy Roman Emperor)
National holiday: German Unity Day, 3 October (1990)
Constitution: history: previous 1919 (Weimar Constitution); latest drafted 10 to 23 August 1948, approved 12 May 1949, promulgated 23 May 1949, entered into force 24 May 1949 amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage and enactment into law require two-thirds majority vote by both the Bundesrat (upper house) and the Bundestag (lower house) of Parliament; articles including those on basic human rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2017 (2018)
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; age 16 for some state and municipal elections
Executive branch: chief of state: President Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (since 19 March 2017)

head of government: Chancellor Angela MERKEL (since 22 November 2005)

cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) recommended by the chancellor, appointed by the president elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by a Federal Convention consisting of all members of the Federal Parliament (Bundestag) and an equivalent number of delegates indirectly elected by the state parliaments; president serves a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 February 2017 (next to be held in February 2022); following the most recent Federal Parliament election, the party or coalition with the most representatives usually elects the chancellor (Angela Merkel since 2005) and appointed by the president to serve a renewable 4-year term; Federal Parliament vote for chancellor last held on 14 March 2018 (next to be held after the Bundestag elections in 2021)

election results: Frank-Walter STEINMEIER elected president; Federal Convention vote count - Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (SPD) 931, Christopher BUTTERWEGGE (The Left) 128, Albrecht GLASER (Alternative for Germany AfD) 42, Alexander HOLD (BVB/FW) 25, Engelbert SONNEBORN (Pirates) 10; Angela MERKEL (CDU) reelected chancellor; Federal Parliament vote - 364 to 315
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of: Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 seats; members appointed by each of the 16 state governments) Federal Diet or Bundestag (709 seats - total seats can vary each electoral term; approximately one-half of members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and approximately one-half directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: Bundesrat - none; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election Bundestag - last held on 24 September 2017 (next to be held in 2021); most postwar German governments have been coalitions

election results: Bundesrat - composition - men 50, women 19, percent of women 27.5% Bundestag - percent of vote by party - CDU/CSU 33%, SPD 20.5%, AfD 12.6%, FDP 10.7%, The Left 9.2%, Alliance '90/Greens 8.9%, other 5%; seats by party - CDU/CSU 246, SPD 152, AfD 91, FDP 80, The Left 69, Alliance '90/Greens 67; composition - men 490, women 219, percent of women 30.5%; note - total Parliament percent of women 30.5%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Federal Court of Justice (court consists of 127 judges, including the court president, vice presidents, presiding judges, other judges and organized into 25 Senates subdivided into 12 civil panels, 5 criminal panels, and 8 special panels; Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (consists of 2 Senates each subdivided into 3 chambers, each with a chairman and 8 members) judge selection and term of office: Federal Court of Justice judges selected by the Judges Election Committee, which consists of the Secretaries of Justice from each of the 16 federated states and 16 members appointed by the Federal Parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Federal Constitutional Court judges - one-half elected by the House of Representatives and one-half by the Senate; judges appointed for 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 68

subordinate courts: Federal Administrative Court; Federal Finance Court; Federal Labor Court; Federal Social Court; each of the 16 federated states or Land has its own constitutional court and a hierarchy of ordinary (civil, criminal, family) and specialized (administrative, finance, labor, social) courts
Political parties and leaders: Alliance '90/Greens [Annalena BAERBOCK and Robert HABECK] Alternative for Germany or AfD [Alexander GAULAND and Joerg MEUTHEN] Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Annegret KRAMP-KARRENBAUER] Christian Social Union or CSU [Markus SOEDER] Free Democratic Party or FDP [Christian LINDNER] The Left or Die Linke [Katja KIPPING and Bernd RIEXINGER] Social Democratic Party or SPD [Andrea NAHLES]
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): eagle;
national colors: black, red, yellow
National anthem: name: "Das Lied der Deutschen" (Song of the Germans)
lyrics/music: August Heinrich HOFFMANN VON FALLERSLEBEN/Franz Joseph HAYDN

note: adopted 1922; the anthem, also known as "Deutschlandlied" (Song of Germany), was originally adopted for its connection to the March 1848 liberal revolution; following appropriation by the Nazis of the first verse, specifically the phrase, "Deutschland, Deutschland ueber alles" (Germany, Germany above all) to promote nationalism, it was banned after 1945; in 1952, its third verse was adopted by West Germany as its national anthem; in 1990, it became the national anthem for the reunited Germany
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Emily Margarethe HABER (since 22 June 2018)
chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 298-4000
FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Richard GRENELL (since 8 May 2018)
embassy: Clayallee 170, 14191 Berlin
mailing address: Clayallee 170, 14191 Berlin
telephone: [49] (30) 8305-0
FAX: [49] (30) 8305-1215
consulate(s) general: Dusseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich
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 Economy
The German economy - the fifth largest economy in the world in PPP terms and Europe's largest - is a leading exporter of machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and household equipment. Germany benefits from a highly skilled labor force, but, like its Western European neighbors, faces significant demographic challenges to sustained long-term growth. Low fertility rates and a large increase in net immigration are increasing pressure on the country's social welfare system and necessitate structural reforms. Reforms launched by the government of Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (1998-2005), deemed necessary to address chronically high unemployment and low average growth, contributed to strong economic growth and falling unemployment. These advances, as well as a government subsidized, reduced working hour scheme, help explain the relatively modest increase in unemployment during the 2008-09 recession - the deepest since World War II. The German Government introduced a minimum wage in 2015 that increased to $9.79 (8.84 euros) in January 2017. Stimulus and stabilization efforts initiated in 2008 and 2009 and tax cuts introduced in Chancellor Angela MERKEL's second term increased Germany's total budget deficit - including federal, state, and municipal - to 4.1% in 2010, but slower spending and higher tax revenues reduced the deficit to 0.8% in 2011 and in 2017 Germany reached a budget surplus of 0.7%. A constitutional amendment approved in 2009 limits the federal government to structural deficits of no more than 0.35% of GDP per annum as of 2016, though the target was already reached in 2012. Following the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, Chancellor Angela MERKEL announced in May 2011 that eight of the country's 17 nuclear reactors would be shut down immediately and the remaining plants would close by 2022. Germany plans to replace nuclear power largely with renewable energy, which accounted for 29.5% of gross electricity consumption in 2016, up from 9% in 2000. Before the shutdown of the eight reactors, Germany relied on nuclear power for 23% of its electricity generating capacity and 46% of its base-load electricity production. The German economy suffers from low levels of investment, and a government plan to invest 15 billion euros during 2016-18, largely in infrastructure, is intended to spur needed private investment. Domestic consumption, investment, and exports are likely to drive German GDP growth in 2018, and the country’s budget and trade surpluses are likely to remain high.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $4.199 trillion (2017 est.) $4.099 trillion (2016 est.) $4.012 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $3.701 trillion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (2017 est.) 2.2% (2016 est.) 1.5% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $50,800 (2017 est.) $49,800 (2016 est.) $49,100 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 28% of GDP (2017 est.) 28.2% of GDP (2016 est.) 28.1% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 53.1% (2017 est.) government consumption: 19.5% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 20.4% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: -0.5% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 47.3% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -39.7% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 0.7% (2017 est.) industry: 30.7% (2017 est.) services: 68.6% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; milk products; cattle, pigs, poultry
Industries: among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, automobiles, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles
Industrial production growth rate: 3.3% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 45.9 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 1.4%
industry: 24.2%
services: 74.3% (2016)
Unemployment rate: 3.8% (2017 est.) 4.2% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 16.7% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 24% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 27 (2006) 30 (1994)
Budget: revenues: 1.665 trillion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 1.619 trillion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 45% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): 1.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 63.9% of GDP (2017 est.) 67.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; the series are presented as a percentage of GDP and in millions of euros; GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product at current market prices; data expressed in national currency are converted into euro using end-of-year exchange rates provided by the European Central Bank
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.7% (2017 est.) 0.4% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $291 billion (2017 est.) $297.5 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $1.434 trillion (2017 est.) $1.322 trillion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: motor vehicles, machinery, chemicals, computer and electronic products, electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, metals, transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, rubber and plastic products
Exports - partners: US 8.8%, France 8.2%, China 6.8%, Netherlands 6.7%, UK 6.6%, Italy 5.1%, Austria 4.9%, Poland 4.7%, Switzerland 4.2% (2017)
Imports: $1.135 trillion (2017 est.) $1.022 trillion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery, data processing equipment, vehicles, chemicals, oil and gas, metals, electric equipment, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, agricultural products
Imports - partners: Netherlands 13.8%, China 7%, France 6.6%, Belgium 5.9%, Italy 5.4%, Poland 5.4%, Czechia 4.8%, US 4.5%, Austria 4.3%, Switzerland 4.2% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $200.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $173.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $5.326 trillion (31 March 2016 est.) $5.21 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $1.653 trillion (31 December 2017 est.) $1.391 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $2.298 trillion (31 December 2017 est.) $1.981 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $1.716 trillion (31 December 2015 est.) $1.739 trillion (31 December 2014 est.) $1.936 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.885 (2017 est.) 0.903 (2016 est.) 0.9214 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 612.8 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 536.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 78.86 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 28.34 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 208.5 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 41% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 5% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 52% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 43,410 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 6,569 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 1.836 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 129.6 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 2.158 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 2.46 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 494,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 883,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Natural gas - production: 7.9 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 93.36 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 34.61 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 119.5 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 39.5 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 847.6 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 106 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 132 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part; universal 3G available infrastructure and LTE networks; penetration in broadband and mobile sectors average for region (2018)

domestic: extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries; 55 per 100 for fixed-line and 132 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2018)

international: country code - 49; Germany's international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations in the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems
Broadcast media: a mixture of publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; 70 national and regional public broadcasters compete with nearly 400 privately owned national and regional TV stations; more than 90% of households have cable or satellite TV; hundreds of radio stations including multiple national radio networks, regional radio networks, and a large number of local radio stations
Internet country code: .de
Internet users: total: 72,365,643
percent of population: 89.6% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 539 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 318
(2017) over 3,047 m: 14 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 49 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 60 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 70 (2017)
under 914 m: 125 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 221
(2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 35 (2013)
under 914 m: 185 (2013)
Heliports: 23 (2013)
Pipelines: 37 km condensate, 26985 km gas, 2400 km oil, 4479 km refined products, 8 km water (2013)
Railways: total 33,590 km
(2017) standard gauge: 33,331 km 1.435-m gauge (19,973 km electrified) (2015)
narrow gauge: 220 km 1.000-m gauge (79 km electrified) 15 km 0.900-m gauge, 24 km 0.750-m gauge (2015)
Roadways: total 625,000 km
(2017) paved: 625,000 km (includes 12,996 km of expressways) (2017)

note: includes local roads
Waterways: 7,467 km (Rhine River carries most goods; Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 629

by type: bulk carrier 1, container ship 107, general cargo 92, oil tanker 36, other 393 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Baltic Sea - Rostock oil terminal(s): Brunsbuttel Canal terminals container port(s) (TEUs): Bremen/Bremerhaven (5,510,000), Hamburg (8,860,000) (2017) LNG terminal(s) (import): Hamburg
river port(s): Bremen (Weser) North Sea - Wilhelmshaven Bremerhaven (Geeste) Duisburg, Karlsruhe, Neuss-Dusseldorf (Rhine) Brunsbuttel, Hamburg (Elbe) Lubeck (Wakenitz)
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 Military
Military branches: Federal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): Army (Heer), Navy (Deutsche Marine, includes naval air arm), Air Force (Luftwaffe), Joint Support Service (Streitkraeftebasis, SKB), Central Medical Service (Zentraler Sanitaetsdienst, ZSanDstBw), Cyber and Information Space Command (Kommando Cyber- und Informationsraum, Kdo CIR) (2017)
Military service age and obligation: 17-23 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription ended 1 July 2011; service obligation 8-23 months or 12 years; women have been eligible for voluntary service in all military branches and positions since 2001 (2013)
Military expenditures: 1.24% of GDP (2018) 1.24% of GDP (2017) 1.2% of GDP (2016) 1.18% of GDP (2015) 1.18% of GDP (2014)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 532,065 (Syria), 136,463 (Iraq), 126,018 (Afghanistan), 55,334 (Eritrea), 41,150 (Iran), 24,036 (Turkey), 23,581 (Somalia), 9,155 (Serbia and Kosovo), 8,119 (Russia), 7,454 (Pakistan), 6,453 (Nigeria) (2018)
stateless persons: 14,779 (2018)
Illicit drugs: source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs; major financial center
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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