Finland Population: 5,498,211


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Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It gained complete independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland successfully defended its independence through cooperation with Germany and resisted subsequent invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, Finland transformed from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the EU since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro single currency at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are high quality education, promotion of equality, and a national social welfare system - currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.

Long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain
Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia
Geographic coordinates: 64 00 N, 26 00 E
Area: total: 338,145 sq km
land: 303,815 sq km
water: 34,330 sq km

Size comparison: slightly more than two times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Montana
Land Boundaries: total: 2,563 km border countries (3): Norway 709 km, Sweden 545 km, Russia 1,309 km
Coastline: 1,250 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)
contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden, Estonia, and Russia
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes
Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone
Land use: agricultural land: 7.5% arable land 7.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.1% forest: 72.9%
other: 19.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 690 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: NA
Current Environment Issues: air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish
Ethnic groups: Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.6%, Russian 0.5%, Estonian 0.3%, Roma 0.1%, Sami 0.1% (2006)
Languages: Finnish (official) 89%, Swedish (official) 5.3%, Russian 1.3%, other 4.4% (2014 est.)
Religions: Lutheran 73.8%, Orthodox 1.1%, other or none 25.1% (2014 est.)
Population: 5,498,211 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.42% (male 461,432/female 441,244)
15-24 years: 11.6% (male 325,919/female 312,045)
25-54 years: 37.9% (male 1,063,494/female 1,020,194)
55-64 years: 13.42% (male 362,788/female 374,985)
65 years and over: 20.66% (male 492,143/female 643,967) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 58.3%
youth dependency ratio: 25.9%
elderly dependency ratio: 32.4%
potential support ratio: 3.1% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 42.4 years
male: 40.8 years
female: 44.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.38% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 10.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 84.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: HELSINKI (capital) 1.18 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 28.5 (2012 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 3 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births male: 2.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80.9 years male: 77.9 years
female: 84 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.75 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Health expenditures: 9.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 2.91 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density: 5.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 88% of population
total: 97.6% of population

urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 12% of population
total: 2.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 22.8% (2014)
Education expenditures: 7.2% of GDP (2013)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 19 years male: 18 years
female: 20 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 20.5% male: 22.8%
female: 18.4% (2014 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local long form: Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finland
local short form: Suomi/Finland
etymology: name may derive from the ancient Fenni peoples who are first described as living in northeastern Europe in the first centuries A.D.
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Helsinki
geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 56 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 19 regions (maakunnat, singular - maakunta (Finnish); landskapen, singular - landskapet (Swedish)); Aland (Swedish), Ahvenanmaa (Finnish); Etela-Karjala (Finnish), Sodra Karelen (Swedish) [South Karelia]; Etela-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Sodra Osterbotten (Swedish) [South Ostrobothnia]; Etela-Savo (Finnish), Sodra Savolax (Swedish) [South Savo]; Kanta-Hame (Finnish), Egentliga Tavastland (Swedish); Kainuu (Finnish), Kajanaland (Swedish); Keski-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Mellersta Osterbotten (Swedish) [Central Ostrobothnia]; Keski-Suomi (Finnish), Mellersta Finland (Swedish) [Central Finland]; Kymenlaakso (Finnish), Kymmenedalen (Swedish); Lappi (Finnish), Lappland (Swedish); Paijat-Hame (Finnish), Paijanne-Tavastland (Swedish); Pirkanmaa (Finnish), Birkaland (Swedish) [Tampere]; Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Osterbotten (Swedish) [Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Karjala (Finnish), Norra Karelen (Swedish) [North Karelia]; Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Norra Osterbotten (Swedish) [North Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Savo (Finnish), Norra Savolax (Swedish) [North Savo]; Satakunta (Finnish and Swedish); Uusimaa (Finnish), Nyland (Swedish) [Newland]; Varsinais-Suomi (Finnish), Egentliga Finland (Swedish) [Southwest Finland]
Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Russia)
National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)
Constitution: history: previous 1906, 1919; latest drafted 17 June 1997, approved by Parliament 11 June 1999, entered into force 1 March 2000 amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage normally requires simple majority vote in two readings in the first parliamentary session and at least two-thirds majority vote in a single reading by the newly elected Parliament; proposals declared “urgent” by five-sixths of Parliament members can be passed by at least two-thirds majority vote in the first parliamentary session only; amended several times, last in 2012 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system based on the Swedish model
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Sauli NIINISTO (since 1 March 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Juha SIPILA (since 28 May 2015)

cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 February 2012 (next to be held in February 2018); prime minister appointed by Parliament in 2015

election results: percent of vote in first round - Sauli NIINISTO (Kok) 37%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 18.8%, Paavo VAYRYNEN (Kesk) 17.5%, Timo SOINI (TF) 9.4%, Paavo LIPPONEN (SDP) 6.7%, Paavo ARHINMAKI (Vas) 5.5%, Eva BIAUDET (SFP) 2.7%, Sari ESSAYAH (KD) 2.5%; Sauli NIINISTO elected president in second round held on 5 February 2012 - NIINISTO 62.6%, HAAVISTO 37.4%; Juha SIPILA appointed prime minister
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; 199 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member in the province of Aland directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 19 April 2015 (next to be held by April 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party - Kesk 21.1%, PS 17.6%, Kok 18.2%, SDP 16.5%, Vihr 8.5%, Vas 7.1%, SFP 4.9%, KD 3.5%, other 2.6%; seats by party - Kesk 49, PS 38, Kok 37, SDP 34, Vihr 15, Vas 12, SFP 9, KD 5, other 1 (Aland Coalition)
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (consists of the court president and 18 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 21 judges including the court president and organized into 3 chambers); note - Finland has a dual judicial system - courts with civil and criminal jurisdiction, and administrative courts with jurisdiction for litigation between individuals and administrative organs of the state and communities judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court judges appointed by the president of the republic; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65

subordinate courts: 6 Courts of Appeal; 8 regional administrative courts; 27 district courts; special courts for issues relating to markets, labor, insurance, impeachment, land, tenancy, and water rights
Political parties and leaders: Center Party or Kesk [Juha SIPILA] Christian Democrats or KD [Sari ESSAYAH] Finns Party or PS [Timo SOINI] Green League or Vihr [Ville NIINISTO] Left Alliance or Vas [Paavo ARHINMAKI] National Coalition Party or Kok [Petteri ORPO] Social Democratic Party or SDP [Antti RINNE] Swedish People's Party or SFP [Carl HAGLUND]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): lion; national colors: blue, white
National anthem: name: "Maamme" (Our Land)
lyrics/music: Johan Ludvig RUNEBERG/Fredrik PACIUS

note: in use since 1848; although never officially adopted by law, the anthem has been popular since it was first sung by a student group in 1848; Estonia's anthem uses the same melody as that of Finland
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kirsti KAUPPI (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Charles C. ADAMS, Jr. (since 3 August 2015)
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, 00140 Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone: [358] (9) 616250
FAX: [358] (9) 6162 5800
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Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita GDP almost as high as that of Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, or Sweden. Trade is important, with exports accounting for over one-third of GDP in recent years. Finland is historically competitive in manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Finland excels in export of technology for mobile phones as well as promotion of startups in the information and communications technology, gaming, cleantech, and biotechnology sectors. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the cold climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export industry, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. Finland had been one of the best performing economies within the EU before 2009 and its banks and financial markets avoided the worst of global financial crisis. However, the world slowdown hit exports and domestic demand hard in that year, causing Finland’s economy to contract from 2012-14. The recession affected general government finances and the debt ratio. Finland's main challenges will be reducing high labor costs and boosting demand for its exports. In the long term, Finland must address a rapidly aging population and decreasing productivity in traditional industries that threaten competitiveness, fiscal sustainability, and economic growth. The depreciating ruble and Russia’s general economic slowdown will dampen exports to Russia.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $230 billion (2016 est.) $227.9 billion (2015 est.) $227.4 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $239.2 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0.9% (2016 est.) 0.2% (2015 est.) -0.7% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $41,800 (2016 est.) $41,600 (2015 est.) $41,700 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 21.5% of GDP (2016 est.) 20.9% of GDP (2015 est.) 19.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 55.1%
government consumption: 24.2%
investment in fixed capital: 20.2%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 35.4%
imports of goods and services: -34.8% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 55.1%
government consumption: 24.2%
investment in fixed capital: 20.2%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 35.4%
imports of goods and services: -34.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish
Industries: metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
Industrial production growth rate: 0.8% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 2.675 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and forestry: 4.4%
industry: 15.5% construction: 7.1% commerce: 21.3% finance, insurance, and business
services: 13.3% transport and communications: 9.9% public services: 28.5% (2011)
Unemployment rate: 9.1% (2016 est.) 9.3% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 24.7% (2007)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 26.8 (2008) 25.6 (1991)
Budget: revenues: $127.6 billion
expenditures: $132.7 billion note: Central Government Budget (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 53.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 64.9% of GDP (2016 est.) 62.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as int
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.4% (2016 est.) -0.2% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: $199 million (2016 est.) $316 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $57.1 billion (2016 est.) $61.29 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: electrical and optical equipment, machinery, transport equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; timber
Exports - partners: Germany 13.9%, Sweden 10.1%, US 7%, Netherlands 6.6%, Russia 5.9%, UK 5.2%, China 4.7% (2015)
Imports: $53.5 billion (2016 est.) $58.5 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, computers, electronic industry products, textile yarn and fabrics, grains
Imports - partners: Germany 17%, Sweden 16%, Russia 11%, Netherlands 9.1%, Denmark 4.1% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $10.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $10.02 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $544.7 billion (31 March 2016 est.) $524.7 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $153.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $135.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $140.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $141.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $158.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $143.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $118.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.9214 (2016 est.) 0.885 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.) 0.78 (2012 est.)
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Electricity - production: 66 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 81 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 3.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 22 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 16 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 51.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 16.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 18.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 13.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 226,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 257,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 192,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 134,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 109,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 4 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 3.063 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 3.063 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 48 million Mt (2013 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total: 7.399 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 135 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern system with excellent service

domestic: digital fiber-optic, fixed-line network and an extensive mobile-cellular network provide domestic needs

international: country code - 358; submarine cables provide links to Estonia and Sweden; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the I (2015)
Broadcast media: a mix of publicly operated TV stations and privately owned TV stations; in 2008, the 2 publicly owned TV stations expanded services and the largest private TV station has introduced several special-interest pay-TV channels; cable and satellite multi-chann (2008)
Internet country code: .fi; note - Aland Islands assigned .ax
Internet users: total: 5.074 million percent of population: 92.6% (July 2015 est.)
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Airports: 148 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 74
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 21
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 74

914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 71 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 1,689 km (2010)
Railways: total 5,919 km
broad gauge: 5,919 km 1.524-m gauge (3,067 km electrified) (2014)
Roadways: total 454,000 km
highways: 78,000 km (50,000 paved, including 700 km of expressways; 28,000 unpaved) urban roads: 26,000 km private and forest roads: 350,000 km (2012)
Waterways: 8,000 km (includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia; water transport used frequently in the summer and widely replaced with sledges on the ice in winter; there are 187,888 lakes in Finland that cover 31,500 km); Finland also maintains 8,200 km of coastal fairways (2013)
Merchant marine: total 97

by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 25, carrier 1, chemical tanker 6, container 3, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 16, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 31, vehicle carrier 3

foreign-owned: 5 (Cyprus 1, Estonia 2, Iceland 1, Sweden 1)

registered in other countries: 47 (Bahamas 8, Germany 3, Gibraltar 2, Malta 3, Netherlands 13, Panama 2, Sweden 16) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma
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Military branches: Finnish Defense Forces (FDF): Army (Puolustusvoimat), Navy (Merivoimat; includes Coastal Defense Forces), Air Force (Ilmavoimat) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for male voluntary and compulsory - and female voluntary - national military and nonmilitary service; service obligation 6-12 months; military obligation to age 60 (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.37% of GDP (2016 est.) 1.29% of GDP (2015) 1.3% of GDP (2014) 1.41% of GDP (2013) 1.47% of GDP (2012) 1.42% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the former Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 2,427 (2015)
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