Qatar Population: 2,258,283


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Ruled by the Al Thani family since the mid-1800s, Qatar within the last 60 years transformed itself from a poor British protectorate noted mainly for pearling into an independent state with significant oil and natural gas revenues. The continuous siphoning off of petroleum revenue through the mid-1990s by Qatari amirs permanently residing in Europe had stunted Qatar’s economic growth. Former amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, who overthrew his father in a bloodless coup in 1995, ushered in wide-sweeping political and media reforms, unprecedented economic investment, and a growing Qatari regional leadership role, in part through the creation of the pan-Arab satellite news network Al-Jazeera and Qatar's mediation of some regional conflicts. In the 2000s, Qatar resolved its longstanding border disputes with both Bahrain and Saudi Arabia and by 2007 had attained the highest per capita income in the world. Qatar did not experience domestic unrest or violence like that seen in other Near Eastern and North African countries in 2010-11, due in part to its immense wealth. Since the outbreak of regional unrest, however, Doha has prided itself on its support for many of these popular revolutions, particularly in Libya and Syria, although to the detriment of Qatar’s relations with Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), which temporarily recalled their respective ambassadors from Qatar. In mid-2013, HAMAD transferred power to his 33 year-old son, the current Amir TAMIM bin Hamad - a peaceful abdication rare in the history of Arab Gulf states. TAMIM oversaw a warming of Qatar’s relations with Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE by later in 2014 and prioritized improving the domestic welfare of Qataris, including establishing advanced healthcare and education systems and expanding the country's infrastructure in anticipation of Doha's hosting of the 2022 World Cup.

The peninsula occupies a strategic location in the central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits
Location: Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia
Geographic coordinates: 25 30 N, 51 15 E
Area: total: 11,586 sq km
land: 11,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: almost twice the size of Delaware; slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land Boundaries: total: 87 km border countries (1): Saudi Arabia 87 km
Coastline: 563 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: as determined by bilateral agreements or the median line
Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Terrain: mostly flat and barren desert
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish
Land use: agricultural land: 5.6% arable land 1.1%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 4.3% forest: 0%
other: 94.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 130 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: haze, dust storms, sandstorms common
Current Environment Issues: limited natural freshwater resources are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Qatari(s)
adjective: Qatari
Ethnic groups: Arab 40%, Indian 18%, Pakistani 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%
Languages: Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language
Religions: Muslim 77.5%, Christian 8.5%, other (includes mainly Hindu and other Indian religions) 14% (2004 est.)
Population: 2,258,283 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 12.57% (male 143,859/female 140,027)
15-24 years: 12.62% (male 206,775/female 78,271)
25-54 years: 70.45% (male 1,321,973/female 269,072)
55-64 years: 3.41% (male 59,418/female 17,578)
65 years and over: 0.94% (male 13,610/female 7,700) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 20.1%
youth dependency ratio: 18.6%
elderly dependency ratio: 1.4%
potential support ratio: 70.4% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 33 years
male: 24.1 years
female: 28.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.64% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 9.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 1.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 18.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 99.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 6.02% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: DOHA (capital) 718,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 2.64 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 4.91 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 3.38 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.71 male(s)/female
total population: 3.41 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 13 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 6.2 deaths/1,000 live births male: 6.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.7 years male: 76.7 years
female: 80.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 38% (2012)
Health expenditures: 2.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 7.74 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density: 1.2 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 98% of population
total: 98% of population

urban: 2% of population
rural: 2% of population
total: 2% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 41% (2014)
Education expenditures: 3.5% of GDP (2014)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.3%
male: 97.4%
female: 96.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 13 years male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 1.1% male: 0.4%
female: 6.2% (2013 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: State of Qatar
conventional short form: Qatar
local long form: Dawlat Qatar
local short form: Qatar note: closest approximation of the native pronunciation is gattar or cottar
etymology: the origin of the name is uncertain, but it dates back at least 2,000 years since a term "Catharrei" was used to describe the inhabitants of the peninsula by Pliny the Elder (1st century A.D.), and a "Catara" peninsula is depicted on a map by Ptolemy (2nd century A.D.)
Government type: absolute monarchy
Capital: name: Doha
geographic coordinates: 25 17 N, 51 32 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 8 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Khawr wa adh Dhakhirah, Al Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Ash Shamal, Ash Shihaniyah, Az Za'ayin, Umm Salal
Independence: 3 September 1971 (from the UK)
National holiday: National Day, 18 December (1878), anniversary of Al Thani family accession to the throne; Independence Day, 3 September (1971)
Constitution: previous 1972 (provisional); latest drafted 2 July 2002, approved by referendum 29 April 2003, endorsed 8 June 2004, effective 9 June 2005 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil law and Islamic law (in family and personal matters)
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Amir TAMIM bin Hamad Al Thani (since 25 June 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Nasir bin Khalifa Al Thani (since 26 June 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Ahmad bin Abdallah al-MAHMUD (since 20 September 2011)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the amir elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the amir
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (15 seats; members appointed by the monarch); note - the 2003 constitutional referendum called for the election of 30 members, however; the first election scheduled for 2013 was postponed and the current term was initially extended until 2016, but in June 2016, the Amir extended it until at least 2019 note: although the Advisory Council has limited legislative authority to draft and approve laws, the Amir has final vote on all legislation; Qatar's first legislative elections were expected to be held in 2013, but HAMAD postponed them in a final legislative act prior to handing over power to TAMIM; in principle, the public would elect 30 members and the Amir would appoint 15; the Advisory Council would have authority to approve the national budget, hold ministers accountable through no-confidence votes, and propose legislation; the 29-member Central Municipal Council - first elected in 1999 - has limited consultative authority aimed at improving municipal services; members elected for a 4-year term; next election scheduled for May 2019
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Court of Cassation (consists of the court president and several judges); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of the chief justice and 6 members) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Supreme Judiciary Council, a 9-member independent body consisting of judiciary heads appointed by the Amir; judges appointed for 3-year renewable terms; Supreme Constitutional Court members nominated by the Supreme Judiciary Council and appointed by the monarch; term of appointment NA

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Administrative Court; courts of first instance; sharia courts; Courts of Justice; Qatar International Court and Dispute Resolution Center, established in 2009, provides dispute services for institutions and bodies in Qatar, as well as internationally
Political parties and leaders: political parties are banned
Political pressure groups and leaders: none
International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CD, CICA (observer), EITI (implementing country), FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): a maroon field surmounted by a white serrated band with nine white points; national colors: maroon, white
National anthem: name: "Al-Salam Al-Amiri" (The Amiri Salute)
lyrics/music: Sheikh MUBARAK bin Saif al-Thani/Abdul Aziz Nasser OBAIDAN

note: adopted 1996; anthem first performed that year at a meeting of the Gulf Cooperative Council hosted by Qatar
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Muhammad bin Jaham Abd al-Aziz al-KUWARI (since 10 March 2014)
chancery: 2555 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 274-1600
FAX: [1] (202) 237-0682
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dana Shell SMITH (since 8 September 2014)
embassy: 22 February Road, Al Luqta District, Doha
mailing address: P. O. Box 2399, Doha
telephone: [974] 4496-6000
FAX: [974] 4488-4298
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Qatar has prospered in the last several years with continued high real GDP growth, but low oil prices have dampened the outlook. Qatar was the only Gulf Cooperation Council member that avoided a budget deficit in 2015, but it projects a $12.8 billion deficit, 6% of GDP in 2016. GDP is driven largely by the oil and gas sector; however, growth in manufacturing, construction, and financial services have lifted the non-oil sectors to just over half of Qatar’s nominal GDP. Economic policy is focused on sustaining Qatar's non-associated natural gas reserves and increasing private and foreign investment in non-energy sectors, but oil and gas still account for roughly 92% of export earnings, and 56% of government revenues. Oil and gas have made Qatar the world's highest per-capita income country and the country with the lowest unemployment. Proved oil reserves in excess of 25 billion barrels should enable continued output at current levels for about 56 years. Qatar's proved reserves of natural gas exceed 25 trillion cubic meters, about 13% of the world total and third largest in the world. Qatar's successful 2022 World Cup bid is accelerating large-scale infrastructure projects such as its metro system, light rail system, construction of a new port, roads, stadiums and related sporting infrastructure.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $334.5 billion (2016 est.) $325.9 billion (2015 est.) $314.4 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $156.6 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.6% (2016 est.) 3.7% (2015 est.) 4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $129,700 (2016 est.) $134,600 (2015 est.) $140,700 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 42.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 47% of GDP (2015 est.) 57.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 25.7%
government consumption: 22.6%
investment in fixed capital: 44.8%
investment in inventories: 1.7%
exports of goods and services: 46.5%
imports of goods and services: -41.3% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 25.7%
government consumption: 22.6%
investment in fixed capital: 44.8%
investment in inventories: 1.7%
exports of goods and services: 46.5%
imports of goods and services: -41.3% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables; poultry, dairy products, beef; fish
Industries: liquefied natural gas, crude oil production and refining, ammonia, fertilizers, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement, commercial ship repair
Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 1.691 million (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate: 0.7% (2016 est.) 0.4% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.3%
highest 10%: 35.9% (2007)
Budget: revenues: $41.71 billion
expenditures: $53.95 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 26.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 55.6% of GDP (2016 est.) 41.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.8% (2016 est.) 1.7% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$2.885 billion (2016 est.) $13.75 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $64.69 billion (2016 est.) $77.29 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: liquefied natural gas (LNG), petroleum products, fertilizers, steel
Exports - partners: Japan 25.4%, India 14.6%, China 8.4%, UAE 6.8%, Singapore 5.6%, UK 5.5%, Thailand 4.2% (2015)
Imports: $33.76 billion (2016 est.) $28.5 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, food, chemicals
Imports - partners: China 11.9%, US 11.3%, UAE 9%, Germany 7.7%, Japan 6.7%, UK 5.9%, Italy 4.6%, Saudi Arabia 4.4% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $36.03 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $37.26 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $159.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $141.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $35.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $34.53 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $52.66 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $49.73 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $142.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $185.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $152.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Qatari rials (QAR) per US dollar - 3.64 (2016 est.) 3.64 (2015 est.) 3.64 (2014 est.) 3.64 (2013 est.) 3.64 (2012 est.)
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Electricity - production: 36 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 34 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 8.8 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 98.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 1.532 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 1.303 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 25 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 286,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 238,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 542,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 2,555 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 160 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 41.07 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 118.9 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 24.53 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 92 million Mt (2013 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total: 3.61 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 164 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern system centered in Doha

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership exceeds 180 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 974; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and the US; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and the UAE; sa (2015)
Broadcast media: TV and radio broadcast licensing and access to local media markets are state controlled; home of the satellite TV channel Al-Jazeera, which was originally owned and financed by the Qatari government but has evolved to independent corporate status; Al-Jaze (2014)
Internet country code: .qa
Internet users: total: 2.039 million percent of population: 92.9% (July 2015 est.)
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Airports: 6 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 4
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: condensate 288 km; condensate/gas 221 km; gas 2,383 km; liquid petroleum gas 90 km; oil 745 km; refined products 103 km (2013)
Roadways: total 9,830 km
Merchant marine: total 28

by type: bulk carrier 3, chemical tanker 2, container 13, liquefied gas 6, petroleum tanker 4

foreign-owned: 6 (Kuwait 6)

registered in other countries: 35 (Liberia 5, Marshall Islands 29, Panama 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Doha, Mesaieed (Umaieed), Ra's Laffan LNG terminal(s) (export): Ras Laffan
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Military branches: Qatari Emiri Land Force (QELF), Qatari Emiri Navy (QEN), Qatari Emiri Air Force (QEAF) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: conscription for males aged 18-35; 4-month general obligation, 3 months for graduates (2014)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 1,200 (2015)
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook

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