Romania Population: 21,599,736


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The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.

Controls the most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine; the Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of the country, while the Danube River forms much of the southern boundary with Serbia and Bulgaria
Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 25 00 E
Area: total: 238,391 sq km
land: 229,891 sq km
water: 8,500 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Oregon
Land Boundaries: total: 2,844 km border countries (5): Bulgaria 605 km, Hungary 424 km, Moldova 683 km, Serbia 531 km, Ukraine 601 km
Coastline: 225 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 60.7% arable land 39.1%; permanent crops 1.9%; permanent pasture 19.7% forest: 28.7%
other: 10.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 31,490 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
Current Environment Issues: soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Romanian(s)
adjective: Romanian
Ethnic groups: Romanian 83.4%, Hungarian 6.1%, Roma 3.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.2%, other 0.7%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
Languages: Romanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
Religions: Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)
Population: 21,599,736 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.4% (male 1,597,470/female 1,512,701)
15-24 years: 10.76% (male 1,192,310/female 1,131,655)
25-54 years: 45.97% (male 5,023,060/female 4,905,559)
55-64 years: 12.8% (male 1,293,423/female 1,471,480)
65 years and over: 16.07% (male 1,403,211/female 2,068,867) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 48.9%
youth dependency ratio: 23.1%
elderly dependency ratio: 25.8%
potential support ratio: 3.9% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 40.7 years
male: 39.3 years
female: 42.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.32% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 11.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 54.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.01% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: BUCHAREST (capital) 1.868 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 22 (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 31 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 11 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.1 years male: 71.7 years
female: 78.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.34 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 69.8% note: percent of women aged 18-49 (2005)
Health expenditures: 5.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 2.45 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density: 6.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 92.2% of population
rural: 63.3% of population
total: 79.1% of population

urban: 7.8% of population
rural: 36.7% of population
total: 20.9% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.11% (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 16,200 (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 500 (2013 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 23.4% (2014)
Education expenditures: 2.9% of GDP (2012)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.8%
male: 99.1%
female: 98.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2012)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 24% male: 23.6%
female: 24.7% (2014 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Romania
local long form: none
local short form: Romania
etymology: the name derives from the Latin "Romanus" meaning "citizen of Rome" and was used to stress the common ancient heritage of Romania's three main regions - Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia - during their gradual unification between the mid-19th century and early 20th century
Government type: semi-presidential republic
Capital: name: Bucharest
geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea
Independence: 9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized on 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
National holiday: Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
Constitution: history: several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991 amendments: initiated by the president of Romania through a proposal by the government, by at least one-fourth of deputies or senators in Parliament, or by petition of eligible voters representing at least one-half of Romania’s counties; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by both chambers or – if mediation is required - by three-fourths majority vote in a joint session, followed by approval in a referendum; articles including those on national sovereignty, form of government, political pluralism, and fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended 2003 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Dacian CIOLOS (since 17 November 2015); Deputy Prime Ministers Costin Grigore BORC and Vasile DANCU (since 17 November 2015)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 November 2014 with a runoff on 16 November 2014 (next to be held around 16 November 2019); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of Parliament

election results: Klaus IOHANNIS elected president; percent of vote in runoff - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 54.4%, Victor PONTA (PSD) 45.6%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (136 seats; members serve 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (330 seats; members serve 4-year terms); note - 18 reserved seats for non-Hungarian national minorities and 4 for the Romanian diaspora in the Chamber of Deputies; 2 seats for the Romanian diaspora in the Senate

elections: Senate - last held on 11 December 2016 (next to be held by December 2020); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 11 December 2016 (next to be held by December 2020)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PSD 45.7%, PNL 20.4%, USR 8.9%, UDMR 6.2%, ALDE 6%, PMP 5.7%, other 7.1%; seats by party - PSD 67, PNL 30, USR 13, UDMR 9, ALDE 9, PMP 8; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSD 45.5%, PNL 20%, USR 8.9%, UDMR 6.2%, ALDE 5.6%, PMP 5.3%, other 8.5%; seats by party - PSD 154, PNL 69, USR 30, UDMR 21, ALDE 20, PMP 18, minorities 18
Judicial branch: highest court(s): High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members) judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts
Political parties and leaders: Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU] (formerly part of the ARD coalition) Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN] Green Party [Remus CERNEA] M10 Party [Monica MACOVEI] National Liberal Party or PNL [Alina GORGHIU] - merged with former PDL and FC National Union for Romania's Progress or UNPR [interim chairman Neculai ONTANU] - merged with former PP-DD New Republic Party or NR [Alin Ioan BOTA] Popular Movement Party or PMP [Traian BASESCU] Party of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats or ALDE [Calin POPESCU TARICEANU, Daniel CONSTANTIN] Romanian Social Party or PSRo [Mircea GEOANA] Save Romania Union Party or USR [Nicusor DAN] Social Democratic Party or PSD [Liviu DRAGNEA] Social Liberal Union or USL (coalition of PSD, PC, and UNPR) United Romania Party or PRU [Bogdan DIACONU]
Political pressure groups and leaders: other: various human rights and professional associations
International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow, red
National anthem: name: "Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!)
lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN

note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador George Cristian MAIOR (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Hans G. KLEMM (since 21 September 2015)
embassy: Bulevardul Dr. Liviu Librescu 4-6, District 1, Bucharest, 015118
mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300
FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442
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Romania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment. In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Romania signed a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders, but GDP contracted until 2011. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary standby agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability; no funds were drawn. In September 2013, Romanian authorities and the IMF/EU agreed to a follow-on standby agreement, worth $5.4 billion, to continue with reforms. This agreement expired in September 2015, and no funds were drawn. Progress on structural reforms has been uneven, and the economy still is vulnerable to external shocks. Economic growth rebounded in 2013-15, driven by strong industrial exports and excellent agricultural harvests, and the fiscal deficit was reduced substantially. Industry outperformed other sectors of the economy in 2015. Exports remained an engine of economic growth, led by trade with the EU, which accounts for roughly 70% of Romania trade. Domestic demand was a second driver, due to the mid-2015 cut, from 24% to 9%, of the VAT levied upon foodstuffs. In 2015, the government of Romania succeeded in meeting its annual target for the budget deficit, the external deficit remained low, even if it rose due to increasing imports. For the first time since 1989, inflation turned into deflation, allowing for a gradual loosening of monetary policy throughout the period. An aging population, significant tax evasion, insufficient health care, and an aggressive loosening of the fiscal package jeopardize the low fiscal deficit and public debt and are the economy's top vulnerabilities.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $441 billion (2016 est.) $420.2 billion (2015 est.) $405 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $186.5 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2016 est.) 3.8% (2015 est.) 3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $22,300 (2016 est.) $21,100 (2015 est.) $20,300 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 23% of GDP (2016 est.) 24.4% of GDP (2015 est.) 24.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 69.4%
government consumption: 6.7%
investment in fixed capital: 25.2%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 40.9%
imports of goods and services: -42.5% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 69.4%
government consumption: 6.7%
investment in fixed capital: 25.2%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 40.9%
imports of goods and services: -42.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
Industries: electric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials
Industrial production growth rate: 2% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 9.133 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 28.3%
industry: 28.9%
services: 42.8% (2014)
Unemployment rate: 6.7% (2016 est.) 6.8% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 22.4% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 15.3%
highest 10%: 7.6% (2014 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 27.3 (2012) 28.2 (2010)
Budget: revenues: $56.84 billion
expenditures: $62.14 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 30.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 39.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 38.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding f
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): -1.1% (2016 est.) -0.6% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$3.733 billion (2016 est.) -$2.032 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $56.03 billion (2016 est.) $54.52 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, agricultural products and foodstuffs, metals and metal products, chemicals, minerals and fuels, raw materials
Exports - partners: Germany 19.8%, Italy 12.5%, France 6.8%, Hungary 5.4%, UK 4.4% (2015)
Imports: $66.45 billion (2016 est.) $63.12 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, chemicals, agricultural products and foodstuffs, fuels and minerals, metals and metal products, raw materials
Imports - partners: Germany 19.8%, Italy 10.9%, Hungary 8%, France 5.6%, Poland 4.9%, China 4.6%, Netherlands 4% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $39.86 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $38.71 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $101.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $102.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $76.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $72.21 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $4.018 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $3.618 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $36.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $41.04 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $42.59 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: lei (RON) per US dollar - 4.15 (2016 est.) 4.0057 (2015 est.) 4.0057 (2014 est.) 3.3492 (2013 est.) 3.47 (2012 est.)
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Electricity - production: 62 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 48 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 9.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 2.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 24 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 44.3% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 6.1% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 30% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 19.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Crude oil - production: 82,650 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 1,234 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 111,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 600 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 216,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 192,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 79,250 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 50,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 11.26 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 11.54 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 1.078 million cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 277.1 million cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 105.5 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 76 million Mt (2013 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total: 23.12 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 107 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: the telecommunications sector is being expanded and modernized; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services

domestic: more than 90% of telephone network is automatic; fixed-line teledensity is about 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity over 100 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber-Optic Cable System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turkey; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2014)
Broadcast media: a mixture of public and private TV stations; there are 7 public TV stations (2 national, 5 regional) using terrestrial broadcasting and 187 private TV stations (out of which 171 offer local coverage) using terrestrial broadcasting, plus 11 public TV stati (2014)
Internet country code: .ro
Internet users: total: 12.082 million percent of population: 55.8% (July 2015 est.)
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Airports: 45 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 26
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 19

914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
Heliports: 2 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 3,726 km; oil 2,451 km (2013)
Railways: total 11,268 km
broad gauge: 60 km 1.524-m gauge standard gauge: 10,781 km 1.435-m gauge (3,292 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 84,185 km
paved: 49,873 km (includes 337 km of expressways)
unpaved: 34,312 km (2012)
Waterways: 1,731 km (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals) (2010)
Merchant marine: total 5

by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 1 (Russia 1)

registered in other countries: 31 (Georgia 7, Liberia 3, Malta 7, Marshall Islands 2, Moldova 2, Panama 3, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Sierra Leone 2, Tanzania 1, Togo 1, unknown 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Constanta, Midia
river port(s): Braila, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Tulcea (Danube River)
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Military branches: Land Forces, Naval Forces (Fortele Naval, FN), Romanian Air Force (Fortele Aeriene Romane, FAR) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: conscription ended 2006; 18 years of age for male and female voluntary service; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36 (2015)
Military expenditures: 1.4% of GDP (2015) 1.42% of GDP (2014 est.) 1.3% of GDP (2013) 1.29% of GDP (2012) 1.3% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 240 (2015)
Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook

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