Trinidad and Tobago Population: 1,215,527

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 History
First colonized by the Spanish, the islands came under British control in the early 19th century. The islands' sugar industry was hurt by the emancipation of the slaves in 1834. Manpower was replaced with the importation of contract laborers from India between 1845 and 1917, which boosted sugar production as well as the cocoa industry. The discovery of oil on Trinidad in 1910 added another important export. Independence was attained in 1962. The country is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean thanks largely to petroleum and natural gas production and processing. Tourism, mostly in Tobago, is targeted for expansion and is growing. The government is struggling to reverse a surge in violent crime.

 Geography
    Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt
Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
Geographic coordinates: 11 00 N, 61 00 W
Area: total: 5,128 sq km
land: 5,128 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Delaware
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 362 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to December)
Terrain: mostly plains with some hills and low mountains
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, asphalt
Land use: agricultural land: 10.6% (2011 est.) arable land: 4.9% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 4.3% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 1.4% (2011 est.) forest: 44% (2011 est.)
other: 45.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 70 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms
Current Environment Issues: water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; widespread pollution of waterways and coastal areas; illegal dumping; deforestation; soil erosion; fisheries and wildlife depletion
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)
adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian note: Trinbagonian is used on occasion to describe a citizen of the country without specifying the island of origin
Ethnic groups: East Indian 35.4%, African descent 34.2%, mixed - other 15.3%, mixed - African/East Indian 7.7%, other 1.3%, unspecified 6.2% (2011 est.)
Languages: English (official), Trinidadian Creole English, Tobagonian Creole English, Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Trinidadian Creole French, Spanish, Chinese
Religions: Protestant 32.1% (Pentecostal/Evangelical/Full Gospel 12%, Baptist 6.9%, Anglican 5.7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 4.1%, Presbyterian/Congregational 2.5%, other Protestant 0.9%), Roman Catholic 21.6%, Hindu 18.2%, Muslim 5%, Jehovah's Witness 1.5%, other 8.4%, none 2.2%, unspecified 11.1% (2011 est.)
Population: 1,215,527 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 19.24% (male 119,093 /female 114,830)
15-24 years: 11.55% (male 73,171 /female 67,164)
25-54 years: 44.99% (male 285,376 /female 261,517)
55-64 years: 13.12% (male 79,596 /female 79,890)
65 years and over: 11.1% (male 58,866 /female 76,024) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 43.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 29.8 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 13.5 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 7.4 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 36.6 years
male: 36.1 years
female: 37.1 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.23% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 12.3 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 8.9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -5.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 53.2% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.22% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 544,000 PORT-OF-SPAIN (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 63 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 21.6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 22.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 20.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.4 years male: 70.5 years
female: 76.4 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 40.3% (2011)
Physicians density: 2.67 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density: 3 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 95.1% of population
rural: 95.1% of population
total: 95.1% of population

unimproved:
urban: 4.9% of population
rural: 4.9% of population
total: 4.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 91.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 91.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 91.5% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 8.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 8.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 8.5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.1% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 11,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <500 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 18.6% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 4.9% (2011)
Education expenditures: n/a
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 99%
male: 99.2%
female: 98.7% (2015 est.) Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 7.1% male: 7.2% female: 6.9% (2016 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago
etymology: explorer Christopher COLUMBUS named the larger island "La Isla de la Trinidad" (The Island of the Trinity) on 31 July 1498 on his third voyage; the tobacco grown and smoked by the natives of the smaller island or its elongated cigar shape may account for the "tobago" name, which is spelled "tobaco" in Spanish
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Port of Spain
geographic coordinates: 10 39 N, 61 31 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 9 regions, 3 boroughs, 2 cities, 1 ward regions: Couva/Tabaquite/Talparo, Diego Martin, Mayaro/Rio Claro, Penal/Debe, Princes Town, Sangre Grande, San Juan/Laventille, Siparia, Tunapuna/Piarco; borough: Arima, Chaguanas, Point Fortin; cities: Port of Spain, San Fernando; ward: Tobago
Independence: 31 August 1962 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 31 August (1962)
Constitution: history: previous 1962; latest 1976 amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage of amendments affecting constitutional provisions such as human rights and freedoms or citizenship requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both houses and assent to by the president; passage of amendments such as the powers and authorities of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government, and the procedure for amending the constitution requires at least three-quarters majority vote by the House membership, two-thirds majority vote by the Senate membership, and assent to by the president; amended many times, last in 2007 (2018)
Legal system: English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Paula-Mae WEEKES (since 19 March 2018)

head of government: Prime Minister Keith ROWLEY (since 9 September 2015)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among members of Parliament elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college of selected Senate and House of Representatives members for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 19 January 2018 (next to be held by February 2023); the president usually appoints the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives as prime minister

election results: Paula-Mae WEEKES (independent) elected president; ran unopposed and was elected without a vote; she is Trinidad and Tabago's first female head of state
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament consists of: Senate (31 seats; 16 members appointed by the ruling party, 9 by the president, and 6 by the opposition party; members serve 5-year terms;) House of Representatives 42 seats; 41 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and the house speaker - usually designated from outside Parliament; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: Senate - last appointments on 23 September 2015 (next in 2020) House of Representatives - last held on 7 September 2015 (next to be held in 2020)

election results: Senate - percent by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 21, women 10, percent of women 32.3% House of Representatives - percent of vote - PNM 51.7%, People's Partnership coalition 46.6% (UNC 39.6%, COP 6%, other coalition 1%), other 1.7%; seats by party - PNM 23, UNC 17, COP 1; composition - men 29, women 13, percent of women 31%; note - total Parliament percent of women 31.5% note: Tobago has a unicameral House of Assembly (16 seats; 12 assemblymen directly elected by simple majority vote and 4 appointed councillors - 3 on the advice of the chief secretary and 1 on the advice of the minority leader; members serve 4-year terms)
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court of the Judicature (consists of a chief justice for both the Court of Appeal with 12 judges and the High Court with 24 judges); note - Trinidad and Tobago can file appeals beyond its Supreme Court to the Caribbean Court of Justice, with final appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the president after consultation with the prime minister and the parliamentary leader of the opposition; other judges appointed by the Judicial Legal Services Commission, headed by the chief justice and 5 members with judicial experience; all judges serve for life with mandatory retirement normally at age 65

subordinate courts: Courts of Summary Criminal Jurisdiction; Petty Civil Courts; Family Court
Political parties and leaders: Congress of the People or COP [Carolyn SEEPERSAD-BACHAN] People's National Movement or PNM [Keith ROWLEY] Progressive Democratic Patriots (Tobago) United National Congress or UNC [Kamla PERSAD-BISSESSAR]
International organization participation: ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): scarlet ibis (bird of Trinidad), cocrico (bird of Tobago), Chaconia flower;
national colors: red, white, black
National anthem: name: Forged From the Love of Liberty
lyrics/music: Patrick Stanislaus CASTAGNE

note: adopted 1962; song originally created to serve as an anthem for the West Indies Federation; adopted by Trinidad and Tobago following the Federation's dissolution in 1962
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Anthony Wayne Jerome PHILLIPS-SPENCER, Brig. Gen. (Ret.) (since 27 June 2016)
chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490
FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130
consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph MONDELLO (since 22 October 2018)
embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port of Spain
mailing address: P. O. Box 752, Port of Spain
telephone: [1] (868) 622-6371 through 6376
FAX: [1] (868) 822-5905
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 Economy
Trinidad and Tobago relies on its energy sector for much of its economic activity, and has one of the highest per capita incomes in Latin America. Economic growth between 2000 and 2007 averaged slightly over 8% per year, significantly above the regional average of about 3.7% for that same period; however, GDP has slowed down since then, contracting during 2009-12, making small gains in 2013 and contracting again in 2014-17. Trinidad and Tobago is buffered by considerable foreign reserves and a sovereign wealth fund that equals about one-and-a-half times the national budget, but the country is still in a recession and the government faces the dual challenge of gas shortages and a low price environment. Large-scale energy projects in the last quarter of 2017 are helping to mitigate the gas shortages. Energy production and downstream industrial use dominate the economy. Oil and gas typically account for about 40% of GDP and 80% of exports but less than 5% of employment. Trinidad and Tobago is home to one of the largest natural gas liquefaction facilities in the Western Hemisphere. The country produces about nine times more natural gas than crude oil on an energy equivalent basis with gas contributing about two-thirds of energy sector government revenue. The US is the country’s largest trading partner, accounting for 28% of its total imports and 48% of its exports. Economic diversification is a longstanding government talking point, and Trinidad and Tobago has much potential due to its stable, democratic government and its educated, English speaking workforce. The country is also a regional financial center with a well-regulated and stable financial system. Other sectors the Government of Trinidad and Tobago has targeted for increased investment and projected growth include tourism, agriculture, information and communications technology, and shipping. Unfortunately, a host of other factors, including low labor productivity, inefficient government bureaucracy, and corruption, have hampered economic development.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $42.85 billion (2017 est.) $43.99 billion (2016 est.) $46.83 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $22.78 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -2.6% (2017 est.) -6.1% (2016 est.) 1.7% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $31,300 (2017 est.) $32,200 (2016 est.) $34,400 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 26.4% of GDP (2017 est.) 16.8% of GDP (2016 est.) 29% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 78.9% (2017 est.) government consumption: 16.4% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 8.2% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0.6% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 45.4% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -48.7% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 0.4% (2017 est.) industry: 47.8% (2017 est.) services: 51.7% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: cocoa, dasheen, pumpkin, cassava, tomatoes, cucumbers, eggplant, hot pepper, pommecythere, coconut water, poultry
Industries: petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas, methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, food processing, cement, cotton textiles
Industrial production growth rate: -4.3% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 629,400 (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 3.1%
industry: 11.5%
services: 85.4% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate: 4.9% (2017 est.) 4% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 20% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: n/a
highest 10%: n/a
Budget: revenues: 5.581 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 7.446 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 24.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -8.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 41.8% of GDP (2017 est.) 37% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.9% (2017 est.) 3.1% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $2.325 billion (2017 est.) -$653 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $9.927 billion (2017 est.) $8.714 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas, methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, cereal and cereal products, cocoa, fish, preserved fruits, cosmetics, household cleaners, plastic packaging
Exports - partners: US 34.8%, Argentina 9% (2017)
Imports: $6.105 billion (2017 est.) $6.858 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: mineral fuels, lubricants, machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals, live animals
Imports - partners: US 23.8%, Russia 15.3%, Colombia 11.1%, Gabon 10.5%, China 7.3% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $8.892 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $9.995 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $8.238 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $8.746 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $382.9 million (31 December 2014 est.) $311.7 million (31 December 2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $1.266 billion (2014 est.) $2.061 billion (2013 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $177.4 million (31 December 2015 est.) $171.6 million (31 December 2014 est.) $170 million (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TTD) per US dollar - 6.78 (2017 est.) 6.669 (2016 est.) 6.669 (2015 est.) 6.4041 (2014 est.) 6.4041 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 10.07 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 9.867 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.608 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 36,620 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 31,030 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 80,860 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 243 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 134,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 51,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 106,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 36.73 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 21.24 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 15.49 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 447.4 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 48.92 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 2,030,637
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 167 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: excellent international service; good local service; broadband access; expand FttP (Fiber to the Home) markets; LTE launches; regulatory development (2018)

domestic: fixed-line 21 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 167 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 1-868; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to US and parts of the Caribbean and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana
Broadcast media: 6 free-to-air TV networks, 2 of which are state-owned; 24 subscription providers (cable and satellite); over 36 radio frequencies (2019)
Internet country code: .tt
Internet users: total: 846,000
percent of population: 69.2% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 4 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 2
(2013) over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 2
(2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: 257 km condensate, 11 km condensate/gas, 1567 km gas, 587 km oil (2013)
Roadways:
Merchant marine: total 102

by type: general cargo 1, other 101 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Point Fortin, Point Lisas, Port of Spain, Scarborough oil terminal(s): Galeota Point terminal LNG terminal(s) (export): Port Fortin
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 Military
Military branches: Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (TTDF): Trinidad and Tobago Army, Coast Guard, Air Guard, Defense Force Reserves (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Trinidad and Tobago citizenship and completion of secondary school required (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.12% of GDP (2016) 0.88% of GDP (2015) 0.72% of GDP (2014) 0.8% of GDP (2013) 0.66% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago abide by the April 2006 Permanent Court of Arbitration decision delimiting a maritime boundary and limiting catches of flying fish in Trinidad and Tobago's EEZ; in 2005, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago agreed to compulsory international arbitration under UN Convention on the Law of the Sea challenging whether the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago's and Venezuela's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters; Guyana has expressed its intention to include itself in the arbitration, as the Trinidad and Tobago-Venezuela maritime boundary may also extend into its waters
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 7,660 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2019)
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; producer of cannabis
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